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terms

QuestionAnswer
adapter card a small circuit board inserted in an expansion slot and used to communicate between the system bus and a peripheral device
binary number system the number system used by computers composed of only zero and one
BIOS firmware that can control much of a computers input/output functions, like communication with the floppy drive and the monitor
Bios setup program in system bios that can change the values in cmos ram
bus the paths or lines on the motherboard on which data, instructions, and electrical power move from component to component.
byte a collection of eight bits that can represent a single character
cards adapter boards or interface cards placed into expansion slots to expand the functions of a computer,allowing it to communicate with external devices like speakers or monitors
cpu the heart and brain of the computer,which receives data input,processes information and executes instructions.also known as microprocessor or processor.
chipset a group of chips on the motherboard that control the timing and flow of data and instructions to and from the cpu.
clock speed the speed or frequency expressed in mhz,that controls activity on the motherboard and is generated by a crystal or oscillator located somewhere on the motherboard
cmos technology used to manufacture microchips.
cmos ram memory contained on the cmos configuration chip
cmos setup the program in system bios that can change the values in cmos ram
data bus the lines on the system bus that the cpu uses to send and receive data
ac alternating current current that cycles back and forth rather then traveling in one direction
amp a unit of measurement for electrical current.
ampere one volt across a resistance of one ohm will produce a flow of one amp
cmos chips require less electricity,hold data longer after the electricity is turned off , and produce less heat.
atx the most common form factor for PC systems presenly in use,introduced by Intel in 1995
atx 12v power supply a power supply that provides a 12v power cord with a 4-pin connector to be used by the auxiliary 4-pin power connector on motherboards used to provide extra power for processors
brownouts temporary reduction in voltage,which can sometimes cause data loss,also known as sags
balanced technology extended btx a form factor used by motherboards and computer cases thatwas expected to replace ATX.it has higher quality fans,better air flow, improved structural support for the motherboard.
bus riser riser card
capacitor an electronic device that can maintain an electrical charge for a period of time and is used to smooth out the flow of electric current.found in computer supplies.
clamping voltage the maximum voltage allowed through a surge suppressor
compact cases used in low end desktop systems.also called low profile or slim line cases.have fewer drive bays,but still provide for expansion
data line protector a surge protector designed to work with the telephone line to a modem.
daughter card riser card
desktop case a computer case that sits flat on a desktop doing double duty as a monitor stand
diagnostic card adapter cards designed to discover and report computer errors and conflicts at the post time (before computer boots up) displaying a number on the card
diode an electronic device that allows electricity to flow in only one direction.used in a recitifer circuit
dual inline package switch a switch on a circuit board or other device that can be set to on or off to hold configuration or setup information
direct current current that travels in only one direction (type of electricity provided by batteries)
electromagnetic interference a magnetic field produced as a side effect from the flow of electricity.can cause corrupted data in data lines that are not properly shielded
electrostatic discharge another name for static electricity,which can damage chips and destroy motherboards,even though it might not be felt or seen from the naked eye.
field replaceable unit a component in a computer or device that can be replaced with a new component without sending the computer or device back to the manufacturer. examples are power supply,dimm,motherboard,floppy disk drive.
FlexAtx a version of the atx form factor that allows for maximum flexibility in the size and shape of cases and motherboards .ideal for small custom systems.
form factor a set of specifications on the size,shape,and configuration of a compuputer hardware component,such as a case,power supply or motherboard
ground bracelet a strap that you wear around your wrist that is attached to the computer case,ground mat,or another ground so that the ESD is discharged from your body before you touch sensitive components inside a computer.
intelligent UPS a ups connected to a computer by way of a usb or serial cable so that the software on the computer can monitor and control the ups.also called smart ups
inverter a device that converts DC to AC
joule a measure of work or energy.one joule of energy produces one watt of power for one second
line conditioners a device that regulates or conditions power,providing continuous voltage during brownouts and spikes
low profile cases compact
MicroAtx a version of the atx form factor.addresses some new technologies that were developed after the original introduction of atx.
mid-tower most versatile and popular computer case,which is midrange in size and generally has around six expansion slots and four drive bays;provides moderate potential for expansion
multimeter a device used to measure the various components of an electric circuit. most common measurements are vo.tage,current and resistance
NLX a low end form factor that is similiar to LPX but provides greater support for current and emerging processor technologies.was designed for flexibility and efficiency of space.
notebook cases cases that leave no room for expansion and include a thermometer
overclocking running a processot at a higher frequency than is recommended by the manufacturer,which can result in an unstable system,popular thing to do for gaming computers
P1 connector power connection on an atx or btx motherboard,which can have 20 or 24 pins
post - power on self test a self diagnostic program used to perform a simple test of the cpu,ram, and other various I/O devices.performed by startup bios and stored in rom-bios
power conditioners a line conditioner that regulates,or conditionsspower,providing continous protection during brownouts
power supply a box inside the computer case that supplies power to the motherboard and other installed devices.power supplies provide 3.3,5, and 12 volts DC. also called a power supplty
power supply tester a device that can test the output
power supply unit a box inside the computer case that supplies power to the motherboard and other installed devices.power supplies provide 3.3, 5 and 12 volts
radio frequency interference interference produced by a magnetic field that is a side effet of electricity and is in the radio frequency range
rectifier an electrical device that converts ac to dc.a pc power supply contains a rectifier.
resistor an electronic device that resists or opposes the flow of electricity.can be used to reduce the amount of electricity being supplied to an electrical component.
riser card a card that plugs into a motherboard and allows for expansion cards to be mounted parallel to the motherboard.expansion cards are plugged into slots on the riser card.
sags brownouts
slimline cases compact
smart ups intelligent ups.a ups connected to a computer by way of a usb or serial cable so that software cam monitor and control
soft power soft switch a button or switch on an atx or btx system that allows an os to power down the system and a feature that allows for activity such as a keystroke or network activity to power up the system.
spikes temporary surges in voltage
static electricity esd
surge suppressor a device or power switch designed to protect electronic equipment from power surges and spikes
swells spikes
tower case largest type of personal computer case.stand vertically and be as high as two feet.good choice for users who anticipate significant upgrades.
transformer a device that changes the current ratio of current to voltage.
transistor an electronic device that can regulate electricity and act as a logical gate or switch for an electrical signal
uninterruptible power supply ups a device designed to provide a backup power supply during a power failure.basically it is a battery backup system with an ultrafast sensing device
volt a measure of potential difference in an electric circuit.
voltage selector switch a switch on a computer power supply used to set voltage to 115v or 230 v
watt the unit used to measure power.
Created by: cgeaski