Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Pathophys-2 Final

Male & Female Repro, Endocrine, Nervous System, Dermatology

QuestionAnswer
Cause(s) of primary parathyroidism? Most common cause is parathyroid adenoma
Cause(s) of secondary parathyroidism? Most common cause is renal failure (increased serum phosphate levels depress serum calcium levels (b/c PTH responds to both signals?), and this chronic hypocalcemia sends parathyroid into overdrive-- and (somehwo) you end up with HYPERCALCEMIA!)
What are the consequences of hypercalcemia in hyperparathyroidism? Calcification (calcium phosphate) of soft tissue, hypercalciurira/renal stones, heart contraction abnormalities, muscle weakness
What are the manifestations of hyperparathyroidism? (mostly from the hypercalcemia?) Stones (KD), bones (brown tumors and fracture from osteoclasis), moans (not sure why), groans (stomach ulcers- not sure why)
What are the causes of hypoparathyroidism? Most commonly accidental removed of parathyroid during thyroidectomy. Could also be developmental disorder or autoimmune. Chvostek and Trousseau are the dx tests.
What are the manifestations of hypoparathyroidism? Hypocalcemia, TETANY (no calcium to release muscle fiber contractions), carpo-pedal spasm, distal tingling, mood swings, arrhthymia, neuromuscular "irritability"
What are the causes of hyperaldosteronism? Hyperplasia or tumor of adrenal cortex (adrenalcorticoid hyperplasia, adenoma)
What are the manifestations of hyperaldosteronism? Elevated Na+, decreased K+, HTN (hyperaldosteronism is called Conn's disease)
What are the causes of Cushing‘s syndrome? Cushing´s DISEASE is caused by excess cortisol (via ACTH) d/t pituitary tumor (adenoma). Cushing´s SYNDROME includes other causes: adrenal tumor, ectopic production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (aka corticotropin) by small cell lung carcinoma.
What are the manifestations of Cushing‘s syndrome? moon face, buffalo hump, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, perhaps obesity
What are the causes of adrenogenital syndrome (aka congenital adrenal hyperplasia) in males? congenital deficiency of enzyme necessary for synthesis of cortisol which results in excess production of ACTH and consequently excessd production of adrenal androgens
What are the manifestations of adrenogenital syndrome (aka congenital adrenal hyperplasia) in males? Huge penis
What are the causes of adrenogenital syndrome (aka congenital adrenal hyperplasia) in females? congenital deficiency of enzyme necessary for synthesis of cortisol which results in excess production of ACTH and consequently excessd production of adrenal androgens
What are the manifestations of adrenogenital syndrome (aka congenital adrenal hyperplasia) in females? "Ambiguous genitalia" with freakishly enlarged clitoris and possibly fused labia and/or urogenital sinus (whatever that is)
What are the causes of Addison’s disease? Most common cause is auto-antibodies. Prior to 1950s was TB. Could also be (bilateral metastasis to adrenal glands), "amyloidosis"
What are the manifestations of Addison’s disease? "Addled" by fatique, nausea/diarrhea, weight loss, hypotension, syncope, hyperpigmentation of skin ("fadded pig")
COMPARE AND CONTRAST neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma (!!??) Neuroblastoma is in kids ("blast") and often malignant. Pheochromocytoma in adults (dx´d by "vanilla" acid in urine: VMA) and mostly benign. Both include HTN symptoms, but seems like adult is more "paroxysmal"
CLASSIFY diabetes mellitus. (!!??) Duh
What is the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus type 1? Islet cell (beta cell?) insufficiency and subsequent inadequate insulin production
What are the metabolic abnormalities contributing to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes? "impaired beta cell FUNCTION" (??)
What are the risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus? BIG mother, BIG baby, BIG age, BIG number of previous births, h/o miscarriage, family history, prev preg w/ fetal abnormalities
What is the pathogenesis of polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria in diabetes mellitus? Too much sugar in blood tells KD to pee, pee, pee. That results in dehydration/thirst. The "big appetite" comes from "abnormal utilization of protein/carbs/fats."
What are the 3 acute complications of diabetes mellitus? DKA (ketoacidosis, mostly in Type 1). HHS (hyperosmolarity hyperglycemis state (mostly in Type 2). And.... strangely enough: HYPOGLYCEMIA (!!??)
What is the pathogenesis of diabetic ketoacidosis? Liver is breaking down triglycerides for fuel. By-products of this "lipolysis" is fatty acids and GLYCEROL. By-product of this (I think?) is KETONES!! Which are relatively acidic. (Blood can tolerate only very narrow range of pH.)
COMPARE the characteristics of DKA and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. (!!??) DKA: ketonemia, kentonuria, glucose >250, bicarb <15, pH<7.3. HHS: blood glucose is over twice as high!! (>600), plasma osmolarity >310. DEHYDRATION (from the hyperosmolarity surely)
What are the macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus? Mostly accelerated atherosclerosis and its sequelae: MI, stroke, Gangrene (peripheral vascular disease)
What are the microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus? "Thickening of basement membrane" of both vascular and nonvascular structures (glomeruli, tubules of KD) leads to problems of KD (glomerulosclerosis, pyelonephritis), EYE (retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma), NERVES (neuropathies)
What is the pathogenesis of retinopathy? "Microangiopathy" of retina leads to microaneurysm, hemorrhage and ischemia/infarct of retina
What are the pathologic changes in diabetic peripheral neuropathy? Also microangiopathy: thickening/sclerosis of nutrient vessels to nerve leads to ischemia. (There are both somatic and autonomic (vasomotor--> postural HTN, GI, genitourinary, brain) neuropathies.)
What are the causes of ischemic stroke? Duh ("interruption of blood flow in/to cerebral vessel")
What is the most common cause of ischemic stroke? Thrombus in atherosclerotic vessel
What are the causes of hemorrhagic stroke? (bleeding into brain tissue usually from a BV rupture d/t) HTN, aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation
What are the risk factors for stroke? (think Todd English): smoking, HTN, hyperlipidemia, cocaine, male sex, advanced age, DM, obesity, OC use, elevated homocysteine levels
What is the difference between Wernicke and Broca aphasia? Wernicke's is "wordy, words do not make sense" Broca's is "broken" (unable to form words BUT CAN UNDERSTAND!!) WT/BF
What are the manifestations of acute stroke? Sudden onset neuro complaints: weakness, sensory abnormalities, vision changes, langage defect, "altered mentation" (HYPERREFLEXIA in both anterior and posterior circulatory involvement)
What are the manifestations of post-infarct cerebral edema? PROJECTILE VOMITING (!!) 2-4 days later, "decreased consciousness," pupillary changes
What is the difference between Transient Ischemic Event (TIE) and stroke? TIA symptoms resolve within 24 hours (typically withing 1-2 hours)
What is an intracranial aneurysm? AAbnormal bulge or ballooning of a BV supplying the CEREBRUM (typically at arterial bifurcations)
What diseases are associated with intracranial aneurysm? polycystic KD disease, coarctation of the aorta (both would increase arterial pressure)
What are the risk factors for intracranial aneurysm? HTN, smoking, hypercholesterolemia (think Ian?)
What are the possible complications of intracranial aneurysm? can rupture and bleed into SUBARACHNOID SPACE (seizure and HA are first sx. need CT scan ASAP!)
What is the etiology and pathology of arteriovenous malformation? Congenital. Arteries/arterioles feed DIRECTLY into venous blood (venules/veins) without the nice capillary network that would typically buffer the differences in pressure. The venous channels are thus exposed to higher than normal levels of pressure.
What is the pathology of MS? immune medicated inflammatory disease that attacks myelinated axons of the CNS
What are the manifestations of MS? weakness of lower extremities, pins & needles sensory disturbances, diplopia or blurred vision or vision loss, urinary sphincter disturbances, gait impairment or clumsiness of upper extremities. Could also be vertigo, slurred speech, sexual impairment
What are the dx tests for MS? MRI (brain/spinal cord)
What is Parkinson's disease? idopathic, slowly progressive degenerative CNS disorder characterized by slow and decreased movement, muscular rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability
What is the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease? Loss of pigmented neurons of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA (and other brain stem) dopaminergic cell groups (and thus depleted dopamine in these areas)
What are the manifestations of Parkinson's disease? resting tremor, cog-wheel rigidity, bradykinesia, shuffling gait, mask-like face, c/b dementia
What is the difference between DELIRIUM and DEMENTIA with regard to: course? dementia is generally progressive (delirium is typically sudden onset and either spontaneous resolution or waxing/waning, often more evident in evening)
What is the difference between DELIRIUM and DEMENTIA with regard to: reversibility? (see above)
What is the difference between DELIRIUM and DEMENTIA with regard to: circadian variation? delirium often more common after sundown
What is the difference between DELIRIUM and DEMENTIA with regard to: consciousness? delirium includes altered consciousness
What is the difference between DELIRIUM and DEMENTIA with regard to: hallucination? delirium
What is the difference between DELIRIUM and DEMENTIA with regard to: tremor? delirium ("asterixis")
What is the difference between DELIRIUM and DEMENTIA with regard to: causes? dementia thot d/t Alzheimer's, Pick's, multi-infarct, ETOH, tumor, B12 deficiency. delirium usually systemic infection, neoplasm, narcotic or benzo use, stroke, electrolyte imbalance, hyper/hypoglycemia, heart disease
What is the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease? loss of neurons and synapses in cerebral cortex and some subcorticoid regions
What are the clinical features of Alzheimer's disease? k
What is the best screening test for Alzheimer's disease? k
What is the best diagnostic test for Alzheimer's disease? short-term memory test (also "formal mental state examination")
Quick reality check. Give me 2 men's names for Adrenocorticoid HYPERfunction and 2 for HYPOfunction. Conn's= too much aldosterone (HTN, high Na+). Cushing's= too much ACTH. Addison's is TOO LITTLE ACTH (d/t autoimmune, TB, tumors, amyloidosis). Think "Addled" by fatique, wt loss, diarrhea, low BP, fainting, infections, "fadded" pig: hyperpigmentation.
Created by: mrbarr