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Networking - Chap.1

"Business Data Communications" by Allen Dooley - Chapter 1 Terms

QuestionAnswer
Define: Digitization The process of transcribing data into binary form
Define: Proprietary Generally refers to a technology or product that is copyrighted and not available for use without some kind of fee or payment to its owner
Define: Mainframe Giant computers in the 1960s mainly used by governments and large companies because of their massive size and cost to own
Define: Closed-Architecture Technology Does not permit competing technologies to directly interface or interact with it
Define: Open-Architecture Technology Enables the use of technologies that are conversant across platforms
Define: Infrastructure (is like a roadway in that) it conveys data from one location to another
Define: Deregulation To allow competition to enter a market so that consumers in that market can have a wider selection of service providers from which to choose
Define: ARPA When Russia launched 'Sputnik' the U.S. Department of Defense established the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA.) It's primary mission was to create a way for computers to communicate with each other over great distances
Define: ARPANET (later to become the "Internet") This was the fist two nodes connected to each other - one at the Stanford Research Institute and the other at UCLA
Define: Internet A network of networks based upon a common architecture
Define: IPv4 Our current Internet version (when this version was created, researchers had no idea how wildly successful the internet would become)
Define: IPv6 An upgrade of IPv4 yet to come, this version is said to take on many issues that IPv4 simply cannot address.
Define: Pervasive Technology A technology that is so commonly used that it is taken for granted (i.e. cell phones, computers, the internet, televisions, etc)
Define: Telemetry The wireless transmission and reception of data for the purpose of remotely monitoring environmental conditions or equipment parameters
Define: Telecommunications To communicate over distances (includes several types of communication besides data- such as voice, video, telephony, telegraphy, and television) This is historically a broad spectrum term used beyond simply computers and networks)
Define: Data Communications As the name implies, is focused on the communication of data and information between computers and computer networks
Define: Data Today, this encompasses more than just numbers and text. Data might include graphic images, sound files, or video elements
Define: VoIP Voice Over IP)Used to make telephone calls over the Internet in which speech sounds are converted into binary, then decoding of the packets and digital-to-analog conversion reproduce the original voice stream.
Define: Binary A coding scheme using elements called 'bits' to represent data in the form of zeros and ones(Regardless of data type, all eventually becomes expressed in binary form so computers can process it)
Define: Protocol A set of rules that determine how something is performed or accomplished
Define: Encoding Scheme A way of transforming one type of data or information into another (Example: translating English to Russian requires an encoding scheme that follows a formatting protocol)
Define: Standards Establishes the essential rules, functionalities, and operations a protocol must fulfill (there are standard-setting bodies that create and define the standards. Also note that there are two types of standards: formal and informal)
Define: De Facto Standards Informal standards (it is not unusual for formal standards to form from de facto standards)
Define: Non-Proprietary Means 'open' standards
Define: Layered Architecture Each model can be broken into several distinct components called layers. Each layer within the model has its own particular and specific responsibilities and functionalities
Define: OSI Model Open Systems Interconnection Model-has 7 distinct layers. Each layer has a specific set of functionalities and responsibilities.
Define: Layer Stack "All People Seem To Need Digital Power" is for the acronym APSTNDP-used to get the correct order of the layers. (Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, & Physical Layer)
Define: Encryption Scrambles data so that only those with a decryption key can use the data
Define: Compression Occurring at the sender's end, compression reduces the number of bits to be transmitted based on some type of compression scheme
Define: Logical Addressing Handled by the 'Network Layer' of the OSI Model, the address at which an item (memory cell, storage element, network host) appears to reside from the perspective of an executing application program.
Define: TCP/IP Model (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol Model)was developed prior to the OSI model. The layers are similar but not identical-TCP/IP is said to have 4 or 5 layers as opposed to OSI having 7 layers`
Define: Host Anyone who uses TCP/IP refers to network devices as hosts. Therefore, any device such as a printer, computer, smartphone, etc is considered a host.
Define: LAN (Local Area Network) is a network that is usually bound by a relatively small geographical space - a room, building, or complex of buildings. They are typically the cheapest network to install.
Define: Enterprise All the networks belonging to one organization are collectively called an 'enterprise.'
Define: BN (Backbone Network)Usually a high-speed circuit that connects all of the networks within the enterprise
Define: MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) This is a network that spans a city. Organizations may use these to cover greater distances at higher data rates than those offered by a LAN -can also be used to connect LANs to BNs.
Define: Cloud A term used to logically represent connecting to a network infrastructure without being concerned as o how that infrastructure is configured, maintained, or controlled. The inner workings of the infrastructure, the hidden details, are called the cloud.
Define: WAN (Wide Area Network)Used to transfer data over great distances, in example from NYC to LA. This typically uses circuits provided by common carriers such as Sprint, AT&T, Verizon, etc.
Created by: virginiamaycook