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A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) The project management standard developed by the Project Management Institute.
acceptance The decision to tolerate the defects that are found as a result of the quality testing This is also a tool for risk response planning.
acceptance criteria The process and the criteria that will be used to determine whether the deliverables are acceptable and satisfactory.
activity definition Identifying the activities of the project that need to be performed to produce the product or service of the project.
activity duration Assessing the number of work periods needed to complete the project activities. Work periods are usually expressed in hours or days. Large projects might express duration in weeks or months.
activity list A list of all the activities required to complete the work of the project that also includes an identifier code and the WBS code it's associated with. Activities are broken down from the work package level of the WBS.
activity sequencing Sequencing activities in logical order and determining whether dependencies exist among the activities.
actual cost (AC) The cost to complete a component of work in a given time period. Actual costs include direct and indirect costs.
addition A type of project ending that occurs when projects evolve into ongoing operations.
Administrative Closure Gathering and disseminating information to formalize project closure. The completion of each project phase requires Administrative Closure also. The primary purpose of this process is to gather lessons learned and distribute the notice of acceptance.
analogous estimating An estimating technique that uses the actual duration of a similar, completed activity to determine the duration of the current activity. This is also called top-down estimating.
appraisal costs Costs of quality that cover the activities that keep the product defects from reaching the client, including inspection, testing, and formal quality audits.
assumption An event or action believed to be true for planning purposes. Project assumptions should always be documented.
avoiding A conflict-resolution technique that occurs when one party refuses to talk anymore about the issue and physically leaves. This is an example of a lose-lose conflict-resolution technique. This technique is also known as withdrawal.
backward pass Calculating late start and late finish dates by starting at the end of a network diagram and working back through each path until reaching the start of the network diagram. This is part of critical path method (CPM).
benchmarking Compares previous similar activities to the current project activities to provide a standard to measure performance against. It's often used to derive ideas for quality improvements for the project.
benefit measurement methods A type of decision model that compares the benefits obtained from a variety of new project requests by evaluating them using the same criteria and comparing the results.
bidder conference A meeting held by the buyer with potential vendors during the procurement process to allow vendors to ask questions and get clarification on the project
bottom-up estimating Individually estimating each work package, all of which are then rolled up, or added together, to come up with a total project estimate. This is a very accurate means of estimating, provided the estimates at the work package level are accurate
budget at completion (BAC) The total amount of the project budget for a work package, control account, or schedule activity, or for the project.
business analyst The person in charge of understanding the business unit's needs when assessing a project request. The business analyst might be assigned directly from the business unit itself or may be part of the IT organization.
business case Formally documents components of the project assessment, including a description of the analysis method and the results.
business process reengineering Applying changes to an IT system and putting those elements into place based on a project request and a business analyst's examination of the workflow—how people handle their work relative to the request.
business requirements The requirements that describe how the business objectives of the project will be met
cause-and-effect diagram A Quality Control technique that shows the relationship between the effects of problems and their causes. This is also known as an Ishikawa diagram and a fishbone diagram.
change control board (CCB) A board responsible for reviewing and approving, denying, or delaying change requests. The change control board is usually made up of stakeholders, managers, project team members, and others who might have an interest in the project.
Close Procurements A process that concerns completing and settling the terms of the contract and documenting its acceptance.
Closing A process that documents the final delivery and acceptance of the project and is where hand-off occurs to the operational unit. Lessons learned are performed during this process, and project team members are released.
collocated When team members work together at the same physical location.
commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Describes a software application that is purchased from a reseller, vendor, or manufacturer.
common causes of variances Come about as a result of circumstances that are common to the process you're performing and are easily controlled at the operational level. Random, known or predictable, and variances that are always present in the process.
communications management plan Documents the types of information needs the stakeholders have, when the information should be distributed, and how the information will be delivered.
communications planning Determines the communication needs of the stakeholders, when and how the information will be received, and who will receive the information.
comprehensive project plan Integrates all planning data into one document that the project manager can use as a guidebook to oversee the project work during the Executing and Controlling phases.
compromise A conflict-resolution technique where each party involved gives up something to reach a resolution. This is not generally a permanent solution.
configuration management Describes the characteristics of the product of the project and ensures the description is accurate and complete. Controls changes to the characteristics of an item and tracks the changes made or requested and their status.
confronting A conflict-resolution technique that is also known as problem solving. This is the best way to resolve conflicts and involves fact finding to bear out the solution. This is a win-win conflict-resolution technique.
constrained optimization models Decision models that use complex principles of statistics and other mathematical concepts to assess a proposed project.
constraint Anything that either restricts the actions of the project team or dictates the actions of the project team.
contingency reserve An amount of money or time set aside and dedicated to the project to be used to cover unforeseen costs or time that was not identified as part of the planning process.
contract A legally binding document that describes the work that will be performed, how the work will be compensated, and any penalties for noncompliance.
contract administration The process of monitoring vendor performance and ensuring all the requirements of the contract are met.
contract closeout The process of completing and settling the terms of the contract and determining whether the work described in the contract was completed accurately and satisfactorily.
control chart A graph of the variance of several samples of the same process over time based on a mean, an upper control limit, and a lower control limit.
corrective actions A type of change request that typically occurs during the Monitoring and Controlling processes. Corrective actions bring the work of the project back into alignment with the project plan.
cost baseline The total approved, expected cost of the project created in the planning process. It's used as a comparison to actual project expenses throughout the remainder of the project.
cost-benefit analysis A commonly used benefit measurement method that calculates the cost of producing the product, service, or result of the project and compares this to the financial gain the project is expected to generate.
cost budgeting Assigning cost estimates to activities and creating the cost baseline, which measures the performance of the project throughout the project's life.
Cost Control A process that measures the project spending to date, determines whether changes have occurred to the cost baseline, and takes action to deal with the changes. This process monitors the budget and manages changes to the cost baseline.
cost estimating Developing an estimation of the cost of resources needed for each project activity.
cost of quality The cost of all of the work required to assure the project meets the quality standards. The three costs associated with the cost of quality are prevention costs, appraisal costs, and failure costs.
cost performance index (CPI) Measures the value of the work completed at the measurement date against actual cost. This is the most critical of all EVM measurements. The formula is CPI = EV / AC.
cost-reimbursable contract Provides the seller with payment for all costs incurred to deliver or produce the product or service requested.
cost variance The difference between a task's value at the measurement date and its actual cost. The formula is CV = EV - AC.
crashing This is a schedule compression technique that adds resources to the project to reduce the time it takes to complete the project.
critical path (CP) The longest path through the project. Activities with zero float are considered critical path tasks.
critical path method (CPM) A schedule development method that determines a single early and late start date, early and late finish date, and the float for each activity on the project.
critical success factor Elements that must be completed in order for the project to be considered complete. Critical success factors that are not satisfactory can lead to project failure.
customer The recipient of the product or service created by the project. In some organizations this stakeholder may also be referred to as the client.
decision model A formal method of project selection that helps managers make the best use of limited budgets and human resources. Includes benefit measurement methods and constrained optimization models.
decomposition The process of breaking project deliverables down into smaller, manageable components of work so that work packages can be planned and estimated.
defect repairs A type of change request that typically comes about during the Monitoring and Controlling process group. Defect repairs either correct or replace components that are substandard or are malfunctioning.
definitive estimate An estimating technique that assigns a cost estimate to each work package in the project WBS. This is the most accurate of the cost estimating techniques, which typically falls within -5 percent and +10 percent of the actual budget.
deliverable An output or result that must be completed in order to consider the project complete or to move forward to the next phase of the project. Deliverables are tangible and can be measured and easily proved.
dependencies The relationship between project activities.
dependency relationships The type of dependency between two activities and the specific relationship between the activities.
discounted cash flow (DCF) Compares the value of the future cash flows of the project to today's dollars.
discretionary dependency A type of dependency that the project manager and project team choose to impose on the project schedule, such as the use of an established corporate practice.
Document control process Defines how revisions are made, the version numbering system, and the placement of the version number and revision date.
duration compression The use of techniques such as fast-tracking or crashing to shorten the planned duration of a project or to resolve schedule slippage.
early finish The earliest date an activity may finish as logically constrained by the network diagram.
early start The earliest date an activity may start as logically constrained by the network diagram.
earned value (EV) The value of the work completed to date as it compares to the budgeted amount for the work component.
earned value measurement (EVM) Tool and technique of the Cost Control process that compares what you're received or produced as of the measurement date to what you've spent. Uses: planned value (PV), actual cost (AC), and earned value (EV).
economic model A type of benefit measurement method. It is a series of financial calculations that provide data on the overall financials of the project and is generally used as a project selection technique.
enterprise project A project that will be used by users throughout the enterprise.
equipment (a) Resources such as servers, specialized test equipment, or additional PCs that are required for a project. (b) One of the categories of project resources. It includes test tools, servers, PCs, or other related items required to complete the project.
estimate at completion (EAC) A forecast of the total cost of the project based on both current project performance and the remaining work. The formula is EAC = AC + ETC.
estimate to complete (ETC) The cost estimate for the remaining project work. This estimate is provided by the project team members.
executing This project process group is where the work of the project is performed.
expert judgment A technique used in project selection, determining estimates, and determining other related project information that relies on the knowledge of those with expertise on the requested subject matter.
external dependency A type of dependency where a relationship between a project task and a factor outside the project, such as weather conditions, drives the scheduling of that task.
extinction This is a type of project ending that occurs when the project is completed and accepted by the stakeholders.
failure costs The cost if the product fails, including downtime, user support, rework, and scrapping the project.
fast-tracking A schedule compression technique where two activities that were previously scheduled to start sequentially start at the same time. Fast-tracking reduces schedule duration.
feasibility study Undertaken to determine whether the project is a viable project, the probability of project success, and the viability of the product of the project.
finish-to-finish A project task relationship in which the finish of the successor task is dependent on the finish of the predecessor task.
finish-to-start A project task relationship in which the successor task cannot begin until the predecessor task has completed.
fixed-price contracts A contract that states a fixed fee for the work that the vendor will perform.
float time The amount of time the early start of a task may be delayed without delaying the finish date of the project. Also known as slack time.
flowchart A diagram that shows the logical steps that must be performed in order to accomplish an objective. It can also show how the individual elements of a system interrelate.
forcing This is a conflict-resolution technique where one party forces their solution on the others. This is an example of a win-lose conflict resolution technique.
formal communications Planned communications such as project kickoff meetings, team status meetings, written status reports, or team-building sessions.
forward pass The process of working from the left to the right of a network diagram in order to calculate early start and early finish dates for each activity.
functional organization A form of organizational structure. Functional organizations are traditional organizations with hierarchical reporting structures.
functional requirements These define what the product of the project will do by focusing on how the end user will interact with the product.
high-level requirements These explain the major characteristics of the product and describe the relationship between the business need and the product requested. This is also referred to as a product description.
human resources The people with the background and skills to complete the tasks on the project schedule.
human resources planning Defining team member roles and responsibilities, establishing an appropriate structure for team reporting, securing the right team members, and bringing them on the project as needed for the appropriate length of time.
impact The consequences imposed if a risk event occurs on the project.
informal communications Unplanned or ad hoc communications, including phone calls, emails, conversations in the hallway, or impromptu meetings.
information distribution Providing stakeholders with information regarding the project in a timely manner via status reports, project meetings, review meetings, email, and so on. The communications management plan is put into action during this process.
initiating The first process in a project life cycle and the first of the five project process groups. This is the formal acknowledgment that the project should begin. The primary result of this process is the project charter.
inspection A quality control technique that includes examining, measuring, or testing work results.
integrated change control A process that influences the factors that cause change, determines that a change is needed or has happened, and manages and monitors change. All other change control processes are integrated with this process.
integration A type of project ending where the resources of the project are reassigned or redeployed to other projects or other activities within the organization.
internal rate of return (IRR) The discount rate when the present value of the cash inflows equals the original investment. Projects with higher IRR values are generally considered better than projects with lower IRR values. Assumes that cash inflows are reinvested at the IRR value.
Ishikawa diagram A Quality Control technique that shows the relationship between the effects of problems and their causes. This is also known as a cause-and-effect diagram and fishbone diagram.
iterative process Any process that is repeated more than once. The five process groups are repeated throughout the project's life because of change requests, responses to change, corrective action, and so on.
key performance indicators (KPIs) Help you determine whether the project is on track and progressing as planned by monitoring the project against predetermined criteria.
late finish The latest date an activity can complete without impacting the project end date.
late start The latest date an activity can start without impacting the project end date.
lessons learned Information gathered throughout the project (and again at the end of a project phase or the end of the project) that documents the successes and failures of the project. This information is used to benefit the current project and future projects.
lines of communication A mathematical formula that determines the number of lines of communication between participants in a meeting. The formula is n (n - 1) / 2, where n represents the number of participants.
loaded rate A rate used for cost estimating of human resources that includes a percentage of the salary to cover employee benefits, such as medical, disability, or pension plans.
logical relationships The dependency relationships that may exist between tasks. Finish-to-start is the most common logical relationship.
make-or-buy analysis Determines the cost effectiveness of producing goods or services in-house vs. procuring them from outside the organization.
managerial reserve An amount of money set aside by upper management to cover future expenses that can't be predicted during project planning.
mandatory dependency A type of dependency where the relationship between two tasks is created by the type of work the project requires.
materials A catchall category of project resources that includes software, utility requirements such as electricity or water, any supplies needed for the project, or other consumable goods.
mathematical analysis Calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all project activities.
matrix organization An organizational structure where employees report to one functional manager and at least one project manager. Functional managers assign employees to projects, while project managers assign tasks associated with the project to team members.
metric A standard of measurement that specifically defines how something will be measured.
milestone A major deliverable or key event in the project used to measure project progress.
Monitoring and Controlling This project process group is where activities are performed to monitor the progress of the project and determine whether there are variances from the project plan. Corrective actions are taken during this process to get the project back on course.
multiple business unit project A project that is initiated by multiple business units.
negotiating Negotiating is a leadership technique and a conflict-resolution technique. Negotiating is the act of two or more parties explaining their needs and coming to a mutual agreement on a resolution.
net present value (NPV) Evaluation of cash inflows using discounted cash flow tech., applied to each period inflows are expected. Total present value of the cash flows deducted from initial investment; assumes that cash inflows are reinvested. Similar to discounted cash flows.
network diagram A depiction of project activities and the interrelationships between these activities.
operations Operations typically involve ongoing functions that support the production of goods or services. They don't have a beginning or an end.
order of magnitude A high-level estimate of the time and cost of a project based on the actual cost and duration of a similar project.
organizational planning The process of addressing factors that may impact how to manage a project team, defining roles and responsibilities for project team members, identifying how the project team will be organized, and documenting a staffing management plan.
parametric estimating A quantitatively based estimating technique that is typically calculated by multiplying rate times quantity.
Pareto diagram Quality Control technique used to rank importance of a problem based on its frequency of occurrence over time. This diagram is based on the Pareto principle, commonly referred to as the 80/20 rule
payback period The length of time it takes a company to recover the initial cost of producing the product or service of the project.
performance reporting Collecting information regarding project progress and project accomplishments and reporting it to the stakeholders, project team members, management team, and other interested parties. It also makes predictions regarding future project performance.
planned value (PV) The cost of work that's been budgeted for an activity during a certain time period.
planning The process group where the project plans are developed that will be used throughout the project to direct, monitor, and control work results. The primary result of this process is the project plan.
post-mortem analysis Performed when a project is canceled or ends prematurely. It describes the reasons for cancellation or failure and documents the deliverables that were completed.
post-project review Conducted at the end of the project to document lessons learned.
precedence diagramming method (PDM) A network diagramming method that places activities on nodes, which connect to dependent activities using arrows. Also known as activity on node.
predecessor A task on the network diagram that occurs before another task.
preliminary investigation An investigation at project request time to determine the costs and benefits of the project, as well as examine alternatives to the proposed solution in order to determine the feasibility of carrying out the project.
preventive action A type of change request that usually occur during the Monitoring and Controlling process group. Preventive actions are implemented to help reduce the probability of a negative risk event.
prevention A Quality Control tool and technique that keeps errors from reaching the customer. Prevention is less expensive than having to fix problems after they've occurred.
prevention costs The cost of activities performed to avoid quality problems, including quality planning, training, and any product or process testing.
probability The likelihood a risk event will occur. Probability is expressed as a number between 0.0 and 1.0.
procurement planning The process of identifying what goods or services will be purchased from outside the organization. It uses make-or-buy analysis to determine whether goods or services should be purchased outside the organization or produced internally.
product description Explains the major characteristics of the product and describes the relationship between the business need and the product. This is also referred to as high-level requirements.
product verification Occurs in the Close Procurements process and determines whether the work of the contract is acceptable and satisfactory.
program A grouping of related projects that are managed together to capitalize on benefits that couldn't be achieved if the projects were managed separately.
program evaluation and review technique (PERT) Calculates the expected value, or weighted average, of critical path tasks to determine project duration by using three estimates: most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic. The PERT calculation is (optimistic + pessimistic + (4 × most likely)) / 6.
progress reports Reports from project team members listing the tasks each team member is working on, the current progress of each task, and the work remaining.
project Temporary in nature, with a definite start and end date; creates a unique product, service, or result. It is completed when the goals and objectives of the project have been met and signed off on by the stakeholders.
project-based organization An organizational structure focused on projects. Project managers have ultimate authority supporting departments such as HR and Acctg might report to the PM. PMs are responsible for project decisions and acquiring and assigning resources.
project champion The person who fully understands, believes in, and espouses the benefits of the project to the organization. This is the cheerleader for the project.
project charter An official, written acknowledgment and recognition that a project exists. It's signed by the project sponsor and gives the project manager authority to assign organizational resources to the work of the project.
project closure The formal acceptance of a project and the activities required to formally end the project work.
project description Documents the key characteristics of the product or service that will be created by the project.
project execution Carrying out the project plan. Activities clarified, work is authorized to begin, resources are committed, and the product or service of the project is created. The largest portion of the project budget will be spent during this process.
project justification Documentation in the project charter that includes the reason the project is being undertaken and the business need the project will address.
project life cycle The grouping of project phases in a sequential order from the beginning of the project to the close.
project management Applying skills, knowledge, and project management tools and techniques to fulfill the project requirements.
Project Management Institute (PMI) The world's leading professional project management association.
project management knowledge areas The nine project management groupings, or Knowledge Areas, that bring together common or related processes. They are Integration, Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Human Resource, Communications, Risk, and Procurement.
project management office (PMO) Established by organizations to create and maintain procedures and standards for project management methodologies to be used throughout the organization.
project manager The person responsible for applying the skills, knowledge, and project management tools and techniques to the project activities to successfully complete the project objectives.
project performance indicators Measures that the project manager uses to determine whether the project is on track, such as any deviation from the baseline schedule or the baseline budget.
project plan A document, or documents, that covers what the project is, what it will deliver, and how all the processes will be managed. Used as the guideline throughout the project
project review A formal presentation by the project manager or project team members to the sponsor, the client, and the other executive stakeholders.
project schedule Determines the start and finish dates for project activities and assigns resources to the activities.
project selection Used to determine which proposed projects are approved to move forward.
proof of concept A project that undertakes to prove that a specific activity can be done or an idea can be accomplished.
qualitative risk analysis Determining the impact of identified risks on the project and the probability they'll occur. Aligns risks in a priority order according to their effect on the project objectives.
quality control Monitoring work results to see whether they fulfill the quality standards set out in the quality management plan; determines whether the end product conforms to the requirements and product description defined during the planning processes.
quality management plan Describes how the team will enact the quality policy and documents the resources needed to carry out the quality plan. It describes the responsibilities of the team in implementing quality and outlines processes the team will use to satisfy requirements.
quality planning Identifying the quality standards applicable for the project and how they'll be fulfilled.
quantitative risk analysis A complex analysis technique that uses a mathematical approach to numerically analyze the probability and impact of risk events.
quantitatively based durations A duration estimate obtained by applying a productivity rate of the resource performing the task.
RACI chart A type of responsibility assignment matrix that describes the resources needed for the task and their role for that task using the following descriptors: responsible, accountable, consult, or inform.
rebaselining Setting a new project baseline because of substantial changes to the schedule or the budget.
Report Performance Wherethe PM gathers and documents the collection of baseline data for the project. Includes cost, schedule, scope, and quality. Performance report information is delivered to the stakeholders at project status meetings and steering committee meetings.
request for proposal (RFP) A document that is sent out to potential vendors requesting them to provide a proposal on a product or service.
requirement The specifications and characteristics of the goal or deliverable.
resource planning A process that defines and documents all the resources needed and the quantity of resources needed to perform project activities, including human, material, and equipment resources.
resource pool description A listing of all the job titles within a company or department with a brief description of the job. It may also identify the number of people currently employed in each job title.
resource requirements A document containing a description of the resources needed from all three resource types for work package items from the WBS.
responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) A resource chart that defines the WBS identifier, the resource type needed for the WBS element, and the quantity of resources needed for the task. A WBS is displayed in chart form.
revision An update to the approved start or end date of the schedule baseline, typically a result of approved scope changes.
rework An action that is taken as a result of quality activities to correct a defect.
risk A potential future event that can have either negative or positive consequences.
risk analysis The process used to identify and focus on those risks that are the most critical to the success of your project.
risk identification Identifying the potential project risks and documenting their characteristics.
risk list A numbered list of risks that are produced during the risk identification process and that are documented within a risk register.
risk management plan Details how risk management processes will be implemented, monitored, and controlled throughout the life of the project. It does not define responses to individual risks.
risk monitoring and control The process that involves implementing the risk response plan, tracking and monitoring identified risks, and identifying and responding to new risks as they occur.
risk planning Identifying, analyzing, and determining how risk events will be managed for a project.
risk response planning A process that describes how to reduce threats and take advantage of opportunities, documents the plan for negative and positive risk events, and assigns owners to each risk.
risk trigger An event that warns a risk is imminent and a response plan should be implemented.
run chart A Quality Control tool and technique that shows variation in the process over time or shows trends such as improvements or the lack of improvements in the process.
schedule baseline The final, approved project schedule that is used during project execution to monitor project progress.
schedule control The process of documenting and managing changes to the project schedule.
schedule development Calculating and preparing the schedule of project activities, which becomes the schedule baseline. It determines activity start and finish dates, finalizes activity sequences and durations, and determines activity duration estimates.
schedule performance index (SPI) Measures progress to date against progress that was planned. Acts as an efficiency rating. If the result is greater than one, performance is better than expected. If it's less than one, performance is less than expected. The formula is SPI = EV / PV.
schedule update Any change that is made to the project schedule as part of the ongoing work involved with managing the project.
schedule variance (SV) The difference between a task's progress as compared to its estimated progress represented in terms of cost. The formula is SV = EV - PV.
scope The description of the work involved to complete the project. It defines both what is included in the project and what is excluded from the project.
scope control The process of documenting and managing changes to project scope. Any modification to the agreed-upon WBS is considered a scope change. Changes in product scope will require changes to project scope, and scope changes always require schedule changes.
scope creep The minor changes or small additions that are made to the project outside of a formal scope change process that cause project scope to grow and change.
scope definition For purposes of the CompTIA objectives and exam, scope definition is used in a much broader sense to cover several scope planning elements, including the scope statement and the scope management plan.
scope management plan Defines the process for preparing the scope statement and the WBS. This also documents the process that manages project scope and changes to project scope.
scope planning The process of defining the scope management plan, the scope statement, and the WBS and WBS dictionary.
scope statement Documents the product description, key deliverables, success and acceptance criteria, key performance indicators, exclusions, assumptions, and constraints. The scope statement is used as a baseline for future project decisions.
scope verification A process that concerns formally accepting the deliverables of the project and obtaining sign-off that they're complete.
scoring model One of the benefit measurement methods used for project selection. Contains a predefined list of criteria against which each project is ranked. Each criterion has a scoring range and a weighting factor. Can also be used as a tool to select vendors.
sequencing Putting the project activities in the order in which they will take place.
slack time The amount of time allowed to delay the early start of a task without delaying the finish date of the project. This is also known as float time.
sole source A requirement that a product or service must be obtained from a single vendor in government work; also includes justification.
solicitation Obtaining bids and proposals from vendors in response to RFPs and similar procurement documents prepared during the solicitation planning process.
sponsor An executive in the organization with authority to allocate funds, assign resources, and enforce decisions regarding the project.
staff acquisition Obtaining human resources and assigning them to the project. Human resources may come from inside or outside the organization.
staffing management plan Documents when and how human resources will be added to and released from the project team and what they will be working on while they are part of the team.
stakeholder A person or an organization that has something to gain or lose as a result of the project. Most stakeholders have a vested interest in the outcomes of the project.
start-to-finish A task relationship where the finish of the successor task is dependent on the start of its predecessor.
start-to-start A project task relationship where the start of the successor task depends on the start of the predecessor task.
starvation A type of project ending where resources are cut off from the project.
statement of work (SOW) Contains the details of a procurement item in clear, concise terms and includes the project objectives, a description of the work of the project, and concise specifications of the product or services required.
status date The date when the project manager measures how much has been spent on a specific task.
success criteria See acceptance criteria.
successor A task on the network diagram that occurs after another task.
team building A way to get diverse groups of people to work together efficiently and effectively. This is the responsibility of the project manager. It can involve activities performed together as a group or individually designed to improve team performance.
team development Creating an open, encouraging environment for stakeholders to contribute, as well as developing the project team into an effective, functioning, coordinated group.
technical requirements Also known as nonfunctional requirements, product characteristics needed for product to perform the functional requirements. Technical requirements refer to IT-related projects. The elements and functions that happen behind the scenes to meet the request.
time and materials contract A type of contract where the buyer and the seller agree on a unit rate, such as the hourly rate for a programmer. The total cost is unknown and will depend on the amount of time spent to produce the product.
to-complete performance index (TCPI) The projected performance level that must be achieved in the remaining work of the project in order to satisfy financial or schedule goals. The formula is TCPI = (BAC - EV) / (BAC - AC).
top-down estimating An estimating technique that uses actual durations from similar activities on a previous project. This is also referred to as analogous estimating.
trend analysis A mathematical technique that can be used to predict future defects based on historical results.
triple constraint According to CompTIA, time, cost, and quality. Other sources site scope rather than quality in their definitions of the triple constraints.
variance analysis The comparison of planned project results with actual project results. The formula is VAC = BAC - EAC.
work breakdown structure (WBS) A deliverables-oriented hierarchy that defines the total work of the project. Each level has more detailed information than the previous level.
work breakdown structure (WBS) dictionary A document that describes the deliverables and their components, the code of accounts identifier, estimates, resources, criteria for acceptance, and any other information that helps clarify the deliverables.
work effort The total time it takes for a person to complete a task if they did nothing else from the time they started until the task was complete.
work package Lowest level in a WBS. Team assignments, time estimates, and cost estimates can be made at this level.
PERT (O+P+(4*ML))/6 O=Optimistic Time Frame P=Pessimistic Time Frame ML=Most Likely Time Frame
Three Point Estimating (O+P+ML)/3 O=Optimistic Time Frame P=Pessimistic Time Frame ML=Most Likely Time Frame
Free Float Is the amount of time a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following schedule activities.
Total Float Is the total amount of time that a schedule activity may be delayed from its early start date without delaying the project finish date, or violating schedule constraint.
Project Staffing Management Plan Defines how resources are brought onto the project team, how they are managed while on the project team, and how they may be released from the project team. Part of the Human Resources Plan.
Delphi Technique Risk Management planning done through anonymous surveys.
Utility Function Stakeholders tolerance for risk. The lower it is, the greater tolerance for risk.
Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) A method of planning and managing projects that puts more emphasis on the resources required to execute project tasks. This is in contrast to the more traditional Critical Path and PERT methods, which emphasize task order and rigid scheduling.
Created by: ahuddle