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Network Plus

Protocols & OSI

QuestionAnswer
Give some examples of routable protocols. TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, AppleTalk, and DECnet
Name a protocol that is nonroutable. NetBEUI and DLC
Explain a nonroutable protocol. Does not have the capability to send packets across a router from one network to another network.
Explain a routable protocol. The packets can leave the network by being passed through a router then delivered to a remote network.
What is a major advantage of TCP/IP? It can connect heterogenous (dissimilar) enviroments together.
TCP/IP is the protocol on which the _______ is built. Internet
TCP/IP is robust and commoly is associated with _________ and ________ systems. UNIX and LINUX
What does TCP/IP stand for? Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCP/IP was orignally designed in what year? 1970s
TCP/IP was orginally to do what? Connect dissimilar systems across the country and used by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Department of Defense (DOD).
What type of protocol is AppleTalk? Routable
AppleTalk was implemented in how many phases? Phase 1 - for small workgroups & supports nonextended neworks. Phase 2 for larger networks with more than 200 hosts and supports extended networks which a network segment is allowed multiple network numbers and zones (the most popular today).
Explain a nonextended network. Each network segment can be assigned only a single network number and only one zone is allowed.
Explain a zone. A logical grouping of nodes.
True or False. IPX is connection-oriented and reliable in transport? False. IPX is connectionless and unreliable in transport.
What does connectionless mean? No session is established between sender and receiver before transmitting data.
What does unreliable mean? Packets are sent to a destination without requiring the destination to acknowledge receving those packets.
The SPX protocol is responsible for what? Reliable delivery and is connection-oriented.
TCP/IP requires ________ to resolve a MAC address? IP address.
What are the four major frame types? 802.2, 802.3, ETHERNET_SNAP, AND ETHERNET_II.
IPX is responsible for what? Routing packets
TCP/IP has 2 major drawbacks, what are they? 1)Configuration-has a learning curve such as knowing IP addresses, subnetmask,and default gateways. 2)Security-has an open design an is unsecure when used without additional technologies such as SSL.
In the 1980s, what organization defined the OSI model? International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
What does OSI stand for? Open Systems Interconnect
Name the 7 layers of the OSI model. From High to Low: Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data link, and Physical.
Network communication starts at what layer of the OSI model on the sending system? Application Layer
What is the application layer responsible for? On the sending system the application layer sends a request. On the receiving system the application layer is responsible for passing the request to the appropriate application or service on that system.
What is the presentation layer responsible for? The application passes the request down to the presentation layer and the presentation layer formats the data so that the receiving system can interpret it.
What are some of the formating functions of the presentation layer? Compression, encryption, ensuring the character code set can be interpreted on the other side.
What is the session layer responsible for? It manages the dialogue between computer by establishing,managing, and terminating communications between 2 computers.
How many phases are in the session layer? 3
What is the first phase of the session layer? It is the establishment phase. The requestor defines the service and rules; such as who transmits & when and how much data can be sent at a time. Both systems must agree on the rules.
What happens in the second phase of the session layer? The transfer process begins.
What is the third phase of the session layer? Termination in an orderly fashion.
What is the transport layer responsible for? It handles functions such as reliable and unreliable delivery of data through the use of the protocol requested.
The transport layer breaks down data into smaller parts known as what? Segments
If a retransmission is required at the transport layer what segments will be resent? Only the missing segments
How are missing segments detected in the transport layer? The receiving system will receive an acknowledgement (ACKs) from the remote system upon receiving the packets.
The transport layer is also responsible for segment ___________. Sequencing
Explain segment sequencing. It is connection-oriented service that takes segments that are received out of order and puts them in the right order.
TCP works at what layer of the OSI model? Transport Layer with reliable delivery.
What does UDP stand for? User Datagram Protocol
UDP works at what layer of the OSI model? Transport Layer with unreliable delivery.
A service address is also known as what? Port address or well-known addresses
What layer enables the option of specifying a port address? Transport Layer
In TCP/IP service addresses are also called what? Sockets or Ports
What must take place in connection-oriented communication? Handshaking because it defines rules for communication such as transmission speed, what ports to use, and proper terminating of session.
What is the network layer reponsible for? Managing logical addressing information in the packets and the delivery (routing) of those packets by using the routing table stored in the packets.
What is a routing table? A list of available destinations that are stored in memory on the routers.
What is the purpose of a logical address? Uniquely identifies a system on the network and the network that the system resides on.
The logical address is used by what layer protocols? network-layer protocols
When the network layer uses TCP/IP what does it add to the packet? Source address and the Destination address
What layer of the OSI model handles logical addressing and routing? Layer 3 (Network)
An IP address is also known as what? A layer-3 address
What is the data link layer responsible for? For converting the data from a packet to a pattern of electrical bit signals that will send the data across the communication medium.
The data link layer is divided into 2 sublayers, what are they? 1)Logical Link control (LLC) used for error correction and control functions. 2)Media Acccess Control (MAC) determines the physical addressing of the hosts and determines the access method.
MAC address is known as what layer address? Layer-2 address
The sender in network layer appends the IP address information and the data link layer will append what address? MAC address for the sending and receiving systems.
Ethernet and Token Ring are defined by what layer of the OSI model? Layer 2`Data link layer
What is the physical layer responsible for? Moving bits of data on and off the network medium by encoding and timing the bit transmission and reception.
At the data link layer data is converted into electrical signals then passed to the physical layer to do what? Release data on the communication medium.
What is data encapsulation? As data passes down the 7 layers of the OSI model, header information is added to the packets for each layer.
IPX runs at what layer of the OSI model? Layer 3 & 4 but the network exam places it at LAYER 3
SPX runs at what layer of the OSI model? Layer 4 the Transport layer
IP runs at which layer of the OSI model? Layer 3 the Network layer
TCP runs at which layer of the OSI model? Layer 4 Transport layer
UDP is part of what protocol suite? TCP/IP
UDP runs at which layer of the OSI model? Layer 4 Transport layer
NFS is a protocol for what? File sharing that enables a user to use network disks as though they were connected to local machine. Also allows the sharing of printers.
NFS was created by who? Sun Microsystems for use on Solaris (Sun's version of UNIX)
NFS is part of what suite? TCP/IP
What layer of the OSI model does NFS belong to? Application layer
What protocols are implemented in redirectors? Microsoft's Server Message Block(SMB) and Novell's NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)
What is a redirector? It is a software that intercepts requests, formats them according to the protocol in use, and passes the message to a lower-level protocol for delivery or vice versa.
SMB and NCP are primarily used for what? File and printer sharing in Microsoft and Novell.
SMB and NCP belong to what layer of the OSI model. Application layer
What is SMTP? Simple Mail Transport Protocol and it is used for sending internet e-mail messages.
What is FTP? File Transport Protocol that is connection-oriented and used to transfer files between two machines. Required user name and password.
What is TFTP? Trivial File Transfer Protocol and is used like FTP except it is NOT connection-oriented however faster than FTP. No authentication mechanism.
FTP runs on what layer of the OSI model? Layer 7 Application layer
SMTP runs on what layer of the OSI model? Layer 7 Application layer
Telnet runs on what layer of the OSI model? Layer 7 Application layer
JPEG runs on what layer of the OSI model? Layer 6 Presentation layer
GIF runs on what layer of the OSI model? Layer 6 Presentation layer
MPEG runs on what layer of the OSI model? Layer 6 Presentation layer
NFS runs on what layer of the OSI model? Layer 5 Session layer
RPC runs on what layer of the OSI model? Layer 5 Session layer
What does IEEE stand for? Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Ethernet (CSMA/CD) is defined by what standard? IEEE 802.3
The MAC sublayer uses what access method? CSMA/CD
CSMA/CD doesn't stop collisions from happening instead it does what? Helps manage the situations when they do occur.
500 meters is approximately how many feet? 1640
185 meters is approximately how many feet? 607
100 meters is approximately how many feet? 328
802.3u standard defines what? Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps)
802.3z standard defines what? Gigabit Ethernet over fiber-optic cabling or coaxial cabling
802.3ab standard defines what? Gigabit Ethernet over twisted-pair cabling
802.3ae standard defines what? 10-Gigabit Ethernet
802.11 standard defines what? Wireless networking
Speeds of 54 Mbps at frequencies from 5.725 GHz to 5.850 GHz is what standard? 802.11a and is NOT compatible with 802.11b
Speeds of 11 Mbps at frequencies from 2.400 GHz to 2.4835 GHz is what standard? 802.11b components ARE compatible with 802.11g
Speeds of 54 Mbps at frequencies from 2.400 GHz to 2.4835 GHz is what standard? 802.11g allows devices from 802.11a and 802.11b to coexist.
Speeds of over 100 Mbps at frequencies of either 5 GHz or 2.4 GHZ and backwards compatible with 802.11a/b/g is what standard? 802.11n the goal is to increase bandwidth and range.
What does 802.1 define? Internetworking
What does 802.2 define? Logical Link Control
What does 802.4 define? Token Bus
What does 802.6 define? Metropolitan Area Network
What does 802.7 define? Broadband technology
What does 802.8 define? Fiber-optic technology
What does 802.9 define? Voice and Data integration
What does 802.10 define? Network security
What does 802.12 define? Demand priority networking
Created by: linda.buck