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Cultural Sensitivity

understand the sociocultural components of culture (1)aesthetics,(2)attitudes and beliefs,(3)religion,(4)material culture,(5)language,(6)societal organization,(7)education,(8)legal characteristics,and(9)political structures.
culture Sum total of beliefs, rules, techniques, institutions, and artifacts that characterize human populations
ethnocentricity Belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group
aesthetics A culture’s sense of beauty and good taste
demonstration effect Result of having seen others with desirable goods
Protestant work ethic Duty to glorify God by hard work and the practice of thrift
Confucian work ethic Drive toward hard work and thrift; similar to Protestant work ethic
Asian religions Primary ones: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism (India); Confucianism and Taoism (China); and Shintoism (Japan)
caste system An aspect of Hinduism by which the entire society is divided into four groups (plus the outcasts) and each is assigned a certain class of work
material culture All human-made objects; concerned with how people make things (technology) and who makes what and why (economics)
technological dualism The side-by-side presence of technologically advanced and technologically primitive production systems
appropriate technology The technology (advanced, intermediate, or primitive) that most closely fits the society using it
boomerang effect Situation in which technology sold to companies in another nation is used to produce goods to compete with those of the seller of the technology
lingua franca A foreign language used to communicate among a nation’s diverse cultures that have diverse languages
unspoken language Nonverbal communication, such as gestures and body language
bribes Gifts or payments to induce the receiver to do something illegal for the giver
extortion Demand for payment to keep the receiver from causing harm to the payer
extended family Family that includes blood relatives and relatives by marriage
associations Social units based on age, gender, or common interest, not on kinship
recognize forces beyond management control that affect the availability of labor Pop.are aging.Labor is shifting significantly from rural to urban locations.Unemploy.remains a problem in many regions&particularly among youths between the ages of 15 and 24.Large #s of immigrant laborers are moving within& particularly between nations.
understand women's labor, employment, and social roles Women are making progress toward equality in many nations,sexism remains a problem through the world.They continue to have higher levels of illiteracy&lower levels of wages in all regions of the world,&are underrepresented in bus.&polit.positions of auth.
labor quality The skills, education, and attitudes of available employees
labor quantity The number of available employees with the skills required to meet an employer’s business needs
labor mobility The movement of people from country to country or area to area to get jobs
child labor The labor of children below 16 years of age who are forced to work in production and usually are given little or no formal education
brain drain The loss by a country of its most intelligent and best-educated people
guest workers People who go to a foreign country legally to perform certain types of jobs
traditional societies Tribal peoples before they turn to organized agriculture or industry; traditional customs may linger after the economy changes
minorities A relatively smaller number of people identified by race, religion, or national origin who live among a larger majority
labor market The pool of available potential employees with the necessary skills within commuting distance from an employer
labor unions Organizations of workers
collective bargaining The process in which a union represents the interests of a bargaining unit (which sometimes includes both union members and nonmembers) in negotiations with management
identify how ideological forces affect business Ideological forces include capitalism, communism, and socialism. The chapter discusses terminology (conservative, liberal, right wing, and left wing) used to describe various political positions.
explain the meaning of government privatization of business Even governments that consider themselves capitalist and conservative own some businesses. But almost all governments—with the United States lagging behind—are privatizing and getting out of business.
describe the importance of government stability and policy continuity for business Business can rarely thrive in a country with an unstable government or rapid, drastic policy changes. The situation in Bolivia illustrates the problems.
define and assess country risk Country risk assessment is now considered a necessity by most international businesses before they commit people, money, or technology to a foreign country. CRA involves evaluating a country’s economic situation and policies as well as its politics.
communism Marx’s theory of a classless society, developed by his successors into control of society by the Communist Party and the attempted worldwide spread of communism
expropriation Government seizure of the property within its borders owned by foreigners, followed by prompt, adequate, and effective compensation paid to the former owners
confiscation Government seizure of the property within its borders owned by foreigners without payment to them
capitalism An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are for the most part privately owned and operated for private profit
socialism Public, collective ownership of the basic means of production and distribution, operating for use rather than profit
conservative A person, group, or party that wishes to minimize government activities and maximize private ownership and business
right wing A more extreme conservative position
liberal In the contemporary United States, a person, group, or party that urges greater government involvement in business and other aspects of human activities
left wing A more extreme liberal position
privatization The transfer of public sector assets to the private sector, the transfer of management of state activities through contracts and leases, and the contracting out of activities previously conducted by the state
terrorism Unlawful acts of violence committed for a wide variety of reasons, including for ransom,to overthrow a government,to gain release of imprisoned colleagues,to exact revenge for real or imagined wrongs, and to punish nonbelievers of the terrorists’ religion
stability Characteristic of a government that maintains itself in power and whose fiscal, monetary, and political policies are predictable and not subject to sudden, radical changes
instability Characteristic of a government that cannot maintain itself in power or that makes sudden, unpredictable, or radical policy changes
traditional hostilities Long-standing enmities between tribes, races, religions, ideologies, or countries
country risk assessment (CRA) An evaluation,conducted by a bank/busi.having an asset in/payable from a foreign country /considering a loan/an invest.there,that assesses the country’seconomic situat.& policy &its politics to determine how much risk exists oflosingthe asset/notbeingpaid
dumping Selling a product abroad for less than the cost of production, the price in the home market, or the price to third countries
subsidies Financial contributions, provided directly or indirectly by a government, which confer a benefit; include grants, preferential tax treatment, and government assumption of normal business expenses
countervailing duties Additional import taxes levied on imports that have benefited from export subsidies
tariffs Taxes on imported goods for the purpose of raising their price to reduce competition for local producers or stimulate local production
ad valorem duty An import duty levied as a percentage of the invoice value of imported goods
specific duty A fixed sum levied on a physical unit of an imported good
compound duty A combination of specific and ad valorem duties
variable levy An import duty set at the difference between world market prices and local government-supported prices
nontariff barriers (NTBs) All forms of discrimination against imports other than import duties
quotas Numerical limits placed on specific classes of imports
voluntary export restraints (VERs) Export quotas imposed by the exporting nation
orderly marketing arrangements Formal agreements between exporting and importing countries that stipulate the import or export quotas each nation will have for a good
define the legal forces that confront international business International business is affected by many thousands of laws and regulations issued by states, nations, and international organizations. Some are at cross-purposes, and some diminish the ability of firms to compete with foreign companies.
explain why foreign law is important Miscellaneous laws in host countries can trip up foreign business people or tourists. Charges can range from not carrying an alien registration card to narcotics possession.
define contract devices and intellectual property Patents,trademarks,trade names,copyrights,& trade secrets R referred 2 as intellectual properties.Pirating of those properties is common&is expensive for their owners.The UN’s World Intel.Proty.Org.was created 2 administer international property treaties.
define antitrust laws The United States and the European Union enforce anti-trust laws extraterritorially. This is a concern for companies operating in many countries because of the complexity of dealing with so many laws in different jurisdictions.
describe how U.S. laws affect international business operations Many US laws affect intern.bus.opera.The US applies federal employ.laws to any US co.opera.anywhere.This extraterritoriality means that U.S. foreign countries are required to follow US as it applies to US nationals.
public international law Legal relations between governments
private international law Laws governing transactions of individuals and companies that cross international borders
treaties Agreements between countries, which may be bilateral (between two countries) or multilateral (involving more than two countries); also called conventions, covenants, compacts, or protocols
extraterritorial application of laws A country’s attempt to apply its laws to foreigners or non-residents and to acts and activities that take place outside its borders
arbitration A process, agreed to by parties to a dispute in lieu of going to court, by which a neutral person or body makes a binding decision
intellectual property Patents, trademarks, trade names, copyrights, and trade secrets, all of which result from the exercise of someone’s intellect
nonrevenue tax purposes Purposes such as redistributing income, discouraging consumption of products such as tobacco and alcohol, and encouraging purchase of domestic rather than imported products
foreign tax credits Allowances by which U.S. taxpayers who reside and pay income taxes in another country can credit those taxes against U.S. income tax
tax treaties Treaties between countries that bind the governments to share information about tax- payers and cooperate in tax law enforcement; often called tax conventions
antitrust laws Laws to prevent price fixing, market sharing, and business monopolies
competition policy The EU equivalent of antitrust laws
product liability Standard that holds a company and its officers and directors liable and possibly subject to fines or imprisonment when their product causes death, injury, or damage
strict liability Standard that holds the designer/manufacturer liable for damages caused by a product without the need for a plaintiff to prove negligence in the product’s design or manufacture
questionable or dubious payments Bribes paid to government officials by companies seeking purchase contracts from those governments
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) U.S. law against making payments to foreign government officials for special treatment
Created by: mmoreno12



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