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CVA Definitions


cerebrovascular accident (stroke) sudden loss of blood supply to the brain that damages and kills brain cells, thus resulting in neurological deficits related to the involved areas of the brain
hemiplegia one-sided paralysis
hemiparesis partial motor loss on one side of the body
transient ischemic attack (TIA) incomplete stroke. temporary. symptoms are usually mild, develop suddenly, and last for a few minutes up to 24 hours
ischemic stroke 80% of total strokes. may be caused by a thrombus (blood clot that causes blockage) or an embolus (traveling blood clot)
hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a rupture of a blood vessel results in bleeding into the brain. 20% of all strokes. high death rate
flaccid paralysis absence of muscle tone
hypotonicity low muscle tone
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) the most common complication after a CVA. usually develops in the paretic leg
subluxation separation of the glenohumeral joint (glenoid fossa of scapular and head of humerus) due to paralysis or weakness of the rotator cuff muscles and spasticity of scapula muscles
synergy flaccid paralysis is often replaced by spastic paralysis resulting in a nonfunctional extremity. clients move the affected extremities in flexion and extension patterns called synergies. may progress to contractures or deformities w/o intervention
hypertonicity high muscle tone. tends to increase with stressful bodily changes such as pain, fatigue, infections, injury, ulcers, and bowel dysfunction
hemianopsia a permanent visual defect after a stroke that results in a loss of vision on the contralateral half of the visual field of the lateral (temporal) aspect of the hemiplegic side and the medial (nasal) aspect of the unaffected side
motor preservation meaningless, nonpurposeful repititon of an action
emotional liability the inability to control the expression of emotions
dysphagia difficulty swallowing or the inability to swallow. caused by sensory loss and muscle weakness in the structures of the mouth and throat
aphasia an acquired language disorder that may result in a wide variety of deficits
alexia difficulty in reading comprehension
agraphia inability to comprehend written expression
acalculia difficulty in mathematical skills
anomia word-finding difficulty
Brocha's aphasia difficulty speaking (expressive)
Wernike's aphasia problems understanding language (receptive)
global aphasia difficulty with speaking and understanding language, combination of Brocha and Wernike
dysarthria difficulty pronouncing many sounds or combinations of sounds, causing slurred speech
Created by: serugh