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Urinalysis Exam 1

LBI UA/Body Fluids Exam # 1

The functional unit of the kidney is: The Nephron
What substances are not filtered by the glomerulus? Blood cells and plasma proteins
Define renal threshold: Plasma concentration at which active transport stops and a substance is excreted in the urine
What is the clearance test formula? Urine Concentration X Urine Volume/Plasma Concentration
Osmolarity is the measurement of: the number of dissolved particles in a solution
What are the primary constituents of urine? 95% water, urea (9.3 g/l), chloride (1.87 g/l), sodium (1.17 g/l), potassium (0.750 g/l), creatinine (0.670 g/l), with lesser amounts of other ions and compounds
Describe this terms concerning urine formation: oliguria, anuria, nocturia, and polyuira Oliguria: a decrease in unine output (<400 mL/day) Anuria: cessation of urine flow Nocturia: increased nighttime urination Polyuria: increased daily urine volume (>2.5 L/day)
Normal daily urine output ranges from: 600-2000 mL/day (Average: 1200-1500 mL/day)
What is the most routine used method of urine preservation? Refrigeration at 2C to 8C
What type of specimen is used for both routine urinalysis and bacterial culture? Midstream "clean-catch"
What is the one of the disadvantages of refrigerating a urine specimen? Precipitation of amorphous phosphates and urates
What type of urine collection is used to produce quantitative results? 24-Hour Specimen
Which analytes are increased in unpreserved urine? Odor, pH, Nitrite, and Bacteria
Which analytes are decreased in unpreserved urine? Clarity, Glucose, Ketones, Bilirubin, Urobilinogen, and Cellular sediments
What causes the normal yellow color of urine? Urochrome pigment
Which pigment attaches to urates producing a precipitate described as "brick dust"? Uroerythrin
Which chemical causes urine to have a yellow foam when shaken? Bilirubin
Which substance, when present in urine, produces a dark red or "port wine" color? Porphyrins
What causes red urine? RBCs, hemoglobin, and myoglobin
Nonpathologic causes of urine turbidity include: Squamous epithelial cells, Mucus, Amorphous, and Powders
Pathologlic causes of urine turbidity include: RBCs, WBCs, Organisms, RTE, and Crystals
Specific gravity of urine measures: The density of the dissollved chemicals in a specimen
A comparison of the velocity of light in air with the velocity of light is a solution is: Refractive index
Describe these terms related to specific gravity: Isothenuric, Hypothenuric, and Hyperthenuric Isothenuric: Specific gravity = 1.010 Hyposthenuric: Specific gravity < 1.010 Hypersthenuric: Specific gravity > 1.010
Normal urine specific gravity is: 1.003 to 1.035
What disease is associated with a fruity urine odor? Diabetes Mellitus
What would cause a urine specimen to develop an ammonia-like odor? Bacterial contamination (stale) and infection
Created by: mbashley