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A & P 1-Exam #1

Anat. & Phys. 1: Exam #1

QuestionAnswer
What are the four major tissue categories? (CMEN) Connective, Muscle, Epithelium, and Nervous
What are the four types of connective tissue? (CCBB) Cartilage, Connective Tissue Proper, Bone, and Blood.
What are the structure, function, and location of hyaline cartilage? Structure: Avascular, lacks nerve endings, large amount of GAGs, primarily chondroblasts, collagen fibers. Function: Resists tension and compression. Location: Covers ends of bones, tip of the nose, connects ribs to sternum, growth plates, respir.
What are the S, F, and L of fibrocartilage? Structure: Avascular, lacks nerve endings, large amount of GAGs, primarily chondroblasts, very fibrous collagen fibers. Function: Resists tension and compression. Location: Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, & knee menisci.
What are the S, F, and L of elastic cartilage? Structure: Avascular, lacks nerve endings, large amount of GAGs, primarily chondroblasts, elastic fibers. Function: Resists tension and compression, but mostly structure. Location: External ear, epiglottis.
What are the three types of loose connective tissue proper? Areolar, adipose, and reticular.
What are the four types of dense connective tissue proper? Irregular collagenus, irregular elastic, regular collagenus, and regular elastic dense connective tissue proper.
What are the S, F, and L of areolar loose connective tissue proper? S: Cell types include fibroplasts, WBCs, Macrophages, and Mast cells. Ground sub. is primarily H2O. F: Supports and binds other tissues, holds body fluids, defends against infection, and stores nutrients as fat. L: Found under all epithelium.
What are the S, F, and L of adipose loose connective tissue proper? S: Very few fibers, ground sub. H2O, and cell types are adipocytes and fibroplasts. F: Major nutrient storing ability, shock absorber, insulator, and supports and binds other tissues. L: All over the body.
What are the S, F, and L of reticular loose connective tissue proper? S: Cell types are fibroblasts, WBCs, Macrophages, and Mast cells. Ground sub. is H2O. F: Forms "stoma" or internal framework of many organs. Stroma can support many blood cells. L: Spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, etc.
What are the S, F, and L of dense regular collagenous connective tissue proper? S: Collagen fibers that run parallel, fibroblast cell type, and very little H2O for ground sub. F: Provides great resistance to tension and it binds. L: Tendons and ligaments.
What are the S, F, and L of dense regular elastic connective tissue proper? S: Fibroblast cell type, elastic fibers that run parallel, and very little ground sub. F: Resistance to tension and gives structure. L: Vocal chords.
What are the S, F, and L of the dense irregular collagenous connective tissue proper? S: Fibroblast cell type, collagen fibers that run in all planes, and very little ground sub. F: Provides great resistance to tension. L: Found in the skim as the dermis and forms joint and organ capsules.
What are the S, F, and L of the dense irregular elastic connective tissue proper? S: Fibroblast cell type, elastic fibers that run in all planes. F: Forms structure. L: Elastic arteries.
What are the S, F, and L of bone connective tissue? S: Primary cell type is osteoblast and collagen fiber type. F: Supports and protects, fat storage, and blood synthesis. L: Skeleton.
What are the S, F, and L of blood connective tissue? S: Red and white blood cells, fibrin fibers, and ground sub. of plasma. F: Transport, regulation, and protection. L: Blood vessels.
What are the three major types of epithelium tissue? Simple, stratified, and glandular.
What are the S, F, and L of simple squamous epithelium tissue? S: 1 layer and cells are flat shaped. F: Filtration and diffusion. L: Lungs, kidneys, blood vessels, and serous membranes.
What are the S, F, and L of simple cuboidal epithelium tissue? S: 1 layer and cells are cube shaped. F: Secretion and absorption. L: Kidney tubules and glands.
What are the S, F, and L of simple columnar epithelium tissue? S: 1 layer and column shaped cells. Also have goblet cells. F: Secretion mostly, but also absorption. L: Digestive tract.
What are the S, F, and L of pseudostratified columnar epithelium tissue? S: 1 layer that looks like more that one, column shaped cells, and cilla. F: Secretion and absorption. L: Respiratory tract.
What are the S, F, and L of stratified squamous epithelium tissue? S: More than 1 layer and cells near the apical layer are flat shaped. F: Protection. L: Skin and esophagus.
What are the S, F, and L of stratified cuboidal epithelium tissue? S: More than 1 layer and cells are cube shaped. F: Some secretion. L: Rarely found in the body, but sweat and mammary glands.
What are the S, F, and L of stratified columnar epithelium tissue? S: More than 1 layer and cells are column shaped. F: Some protection. L: Transitional layers.
What are the S, F, and L of transitional epithelium tissue? S: More than 1 layer of cells, a solid line forms on the apical layer when stretched, and looks cube shape and appears to have little domes on the apical layer. F: Accommodates for stretch. L: Urinary bladder and ureters.
What are the S, F, and L of gladular epithelia? S: Either endocrine or exocrine glands. Exocrine glands secrete a product onto body surfaces or into body cavities. Either unicellular (goblet cells) or multicellular. F: Secretion. L: Sweat glands, pacreas, salivary glands, etc.
What are the two parts of a multicellular exocrine gland? Acini cells: secretory cells of the gland. Duct cells: form a duct for passage of the product onto the surface of body or body cavity.
How do merocrine multicellular exocrine glandular epithelium secrete their product? Exocytosis.
How do holocrine multicellular exocrine glandular epithelium secrete their product? Accumulate their products in them until they rupture (ex: sebaceous glands of the skin).
How do apocrine multicellular exocrine gladular epithelium secrete their product? Accumulate their products until it's pinched off and released to the apical surface (ex: mammary glands and the armpits).
What are the S, F, and L of skeletal muscle tissue? S: Striated, straight, multinucleated, and voluntary controlled cells. F: Contraction. L: Attached to bones of the skeleton.
What are the S, F, and L of cardiac muscle tissue? S: Striated, branched, uninucleate, and involuntary conrolled cells. F: Contraction. L: Heart.
What are the S, F, and L of smooth muscle tissue? S: Un-striated, spindle shaped, uninucleate, and involuntary controlled cells. F: Contraction. L: Found in the walls of hollow organs (except heart).
What are the S, F, and L of nervous tissue? S: Composed of two types of cells: neurons and supporting cells (neuroglial cells). F: Control and communication. L: Brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
What are the three germ layers in the embryo and what do they give rise to? Endoderm: Gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract and its derivatives. Mesoderm: Gives rise to muscle, bone, and blood vessels. Ectoderm: Skin and the nervous system.
What is the hierarchy of life? Atom --> Molecules --> Cells --> Tissue --> Organ --> Organ System --> Organism
What are the 4 most common atoms found in the human body? O, N, C, H
What are the 4 major macromolecules found in the human body? Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleotides.
What does retroperitoneal mean? Give examples. Means behind the peritoneum. Examples of organs that are retroperitoneal are the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, and the bladder.
What are mesenteries and how are they formed? Mesenteries consist of two layers of peritoneum fused together. The mesenteries anchor the organs to the body wall and provide a pathway for nerves and blood vessels to reach the organs.
Otic Ears
Crural Leg
Nuchal Base of the neck
Acromial Point of shoulder
Olecranon Point of the elbow
Saggital plane Divides the body into R and L halves. If it is divided equally, it would be called a mid-saggital plane.
Lateral Away from the mid-line of the body.
Medial Towards the mid-line of the body.
What are the three sets of serous membranes? All start with the letter P. Peritoneal membranes, pericardial membranes, and pleural membranes.
What does the parietial part of a serous membrane line? Lines the cavity walls.
What does the visceral part of a serous membrane line? Visceral covers the organs themselves.
Where are the peritoneal serous membranes found? Abdominopelvic cavity.
Where are the pericardial serous membranes found? Heart cavity.
Where are the pleural serous membranes found? Lungs and thoracic cavity.
What makes up the integumentary system and what is its function? Comprised of the hair, skin, nails, and sweat glands. Provides protection, regulates temperature, and prevents water loss.
What makes up the skeletal system and what is its function? Made up of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints. Produce bloods cells and provides protection and support.
What makes up the muscular system and what is its function? Muscles attached to the skeleton, minerals, and fats. Produces body movements, maintains body heat, and maintains posture.
What makes up the lymphatic system and what is its function? Lymphatic vessels and organs and lymph nodes. Removes foreign substances, combats disease, maintains fluid balance, etc.
What makes up the respiratory system and what is its function? Consists of lungs and respiratory passages. Exchanges O2 and CO2 between blood and air and regulates blood pH.
What makes up the digestive system and what is its function? Mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Performs digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of waste.
What makes up the nervous system and what is its function? Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. Detects sensations, controls movements, physiological and intellectual functions.
What makes up the endocrine system and what is its function? Consists of glands that secrete hormones. Influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, etc.
What makes up the cardiovascular system and what is its function? Consists of heart, blood vessels, and blood. Transports nutrients, waste prod, gases, and hormones through the body. Also plays a role in immune response and body temp.
What makes up the urinary system and what is its function? Kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts carry urine. Removes wastes and regulates blood pH.
What makes up the female reproductive system? Ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, etc.
What makes up the male reproductive system? Testes, accessory structures, and penis.
What are the characteristics of life? Condition in which there are specific relationships and functions, either anabolic or catabolic metabolism processes, able to respond to stimuli, able to grow, changes over time, and able to reproduce.
What is dynamic equilibrium? Balance in which internal conditions may change and vary, but always within relatively narrow limits called a normal range.
What monitors the body's equilibrium? The nervous and endocrine systems.
What is a set point in regards to homeostasis? The ideal value of a variable (a variable is anything in the body that can change).
What is the receptor in the homeostatic control mechanisms? The sensor that monitors or responds to the changes (stimuli) in our environment.
How does the receptor get a message to the control center? Through a sensory afferent pathway.
What is the function of the control center? The control center determines set point where the variable is maintained. It's the CNS (brain and spinal cord).
How does the control center cause a change in the body if needed? Through a motor efferent pathway.
What is the effector in the body? Causes a reaction in the effort to either increase or decrease the original stimuli. Examples of effectors in the body are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles and glands.
What is the negative feedback homeostatic process? Moves variable towards set point. It acts to shut off or reverse the original stimulus. Most homeostatic.
What is the positive feedback homeostatic process? Moves variable away from set point. Acts to increase or enhance the original stimulus. May lead to death. This is a normal process in labor contractions and blood clotting. Leads away from homeostasis.
What is the general cell structure and basic function? General structure: plasma membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, and organelles. The basic function of cells include metabolism and energy use, synthesis of molecules, communication, and reproduction.
What are channel proteins in cell transport mechanisms? One or more integral proteins arranged so that they form a tiny channel through the plasma membrane. The hydrophobic regions of the proteins face outward and the hydrophillic regions of the protein face inward and line the channel.
What is active transport cell mechanisms? ATP is used to move substances across the plasma membrane. Substances can be moved from areas of lower to higher concentration.
What is diffusion? Random movement of molecules results in net movement from areas of higher to lower concentrations.
What is osmosis? Water diffuses across a selectively permeable membrane. Example water moves from the intestines into the blood.
What is the basic functions of organelles? Structures within cells that are specialized for particular functions (such as manufacturing proteins or producing ATP).
What does DNA code for? A particular protein.
What is transcription and where does it take place in the cell? The synthesis of mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA based on the nucleotide sequence in DNA. (Cell makes a copy of DNA information). It occurs in the cell's nucleus.
What is translation and where does it take place in the cell? Synthesis of a protein at the ribosome in response to the codons of mRNA. Requires mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes. It occurs on ribosomes in the cell.
What is mitosis? The division of cell's chromosomes into two new nuclei, each of which has the same amount and type of DNA as the original nucleus. Two daughter cells are produced and are genetically identical to the parent cells. The daughter cells are diploid.
What is meiosis? Gametes are produced that have one homolog from each of the homologous pairs of chromosomes. 4 daughter cells are produced that are not genetically identical to the parent cells and are haploid. Meiosis produces the gametes.
What are the four different types of epithelial membranes? Cutaneous, mucous, serous, and synovial.
What are the S, F, and L of cutaneous epithelial membranes? S: Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and dense irregular connective tissue. F: Covering and lining. L: Skin
What are the S, F, and L of mucous epithelial membranes? S: 1 epithelial layer and 1 areolar connective tissue layer. F: Absorption and secretion. L: Body cavities that open to the exterior.
What is the function of synovial epithelial membranes? To line toe joint cavities.
Are epithelial membranes a category of tissue or simple organs? Considered simple organs because they incorporate both epithelium and connective tissue.
Created by: reed0370