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networkReview

terms

QuestionAnswer
Physical topology physical layout of a network
Logical topology a characteristic of network transmission that reflects the way in which data is transmitted between nodes
Star physical topology every node on the network is connected thru a central device
Bus topology physical single cable connects all devices on a network with no intervening connectivity device
ring topology physical each node is connected to the two nearest nodes so that the entire network forms a circle..
bus logical topology information is transferred from one workstation directly to another workstation with nothing in between to re route the data
ring logical topology data is transmitted unidirectionally.accepts packets and forwards them to the next workstation
star wired ring topology uses the physical layout of the star and the token passing transmission method
repeaters suited to only bus topology
serial backbone backcone that has two or more internetworking devices connected to each other by a single cable in a daisy chain
distributed backbone a number of connectivity devices are connected to a series of central connectivity devices
collapsed backbone backbone that uses a router or switch as the single central connection point for multiple networks
parrallel backbone backbone that consists of more than one connection from the central router or switch to each network segment.
circuit switching a connection is established between two network nodes before they begin transmitting data
message switching connection is established between two conection paths.one device sends data to the second device then breaks the connection
packet switching data is broken into packets before it is transported
multiprotocol label switching create end to end paths that act like circuit switching.use packet switching technology over circuit switched networks.
CSMA/CD before a node begins to send data it checks the medium.if it detects no activity it sends the data.if it detetcts activity, it waits until there is none
10 Base T maximum segment length of 100 meters and relies on star topology.
100 Base T fast ethernet.maximum segment length of 100 meters.use star topology.100 Mbps throughput.
1000 Base T physical layer standard used for reaching 1 Gbps over UTP.uses all four pairs of Cat 5 cable to receive and transmit signals.uses a different data encoding scheme.
10G Base T uses Cat 6 or 7.10 Gbps data transmission over twisted cable.
100 Base FX specifies baseband transmission,multimode fiber cabling and 100 Mbps throughput.maximum segment length of 2000 meters.
1000 Base LX run on single or multimode fiber.specifies 1 Gbps transmission over fiber optic cable.use one repeaters between segments.
1000 Base SX specifies 1 Gbps transmission over fiber optic cable using baseband transmission.runs on multimode fiber.maximum segment length is 550 meters.
10G Base SR standard for acheiving 10 Gbps data transmission over multimode fiber.maximum segment length is 300 meters, depending on the fiber core diameter and model bandwith used
10G Base SW standard for acheiving 10 Gbps data transmission over multimode fiber.maximum segment length is 300 meters, depending on the fiber core diameter and model bandwith used.encoded for SONET WAN links
10G Base LR specifies a star topology and segment length up to 10 kilometers.standard for acheiving 10 Gbps data transmission over single mode fiber optic cable.
10G Base LW specifies a star topology and segment length up to 10 kilometers.standard for acheiving 10 Gbps data transmission over single mode fiber optic cable.encoded to operate over SONET WAN links.
10G Base ER specifies a star topology. Standard for scheiving 10 Gbps data transmission over single mode fiber optic cable.segment lengths up to 40 kilometers.
10G Base EW specifies a star topology. Standard for scheiving 10 Gbps data transmission over single mode fiber optic cable.segment lengths up to 40 kilometers.encoded to operate over SONET WAN links
Ethernet - II (DIX) contains a 2 byte type field to identify the uppeer layer protocol contained in the frame.
PoE delivering current to devices using ethernet connection cables
PSE devices that supplies power to end nodes
Repeaters device used to regenerate a signal
Hubs connectivity device that retransmits incoming data signals to its multiple ports
Gateways combination of hardware and software to connect two dissimiar networks.perform connectivity,session management and data translation.
Router determine the best path between nodes based on traffic congestion.uses logical addressing information to ditect data between networks or segments.
Switch connectivity device used to logically subdivide a network into smaller individual collision domains.interpret MAC address information to determine whether to filter or forward data packets.
NIC enables a workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computers.
Bridges use a filtering database to determine which packets to discard and which to forward.reads header information to forward packets according to their MAC addresses.protocol dependent
Distance Vector routing protocol that determines the best route for data based on the distance to the destination
RIP slower and less secure.does not work in large environments where data may have to travel thru 12 routers or more to reach their destination
RIPv2 makes up for some of the overhead and security flaws from the original routing protocol
BGP border gateway routing protocol used on border & exterior routers and on Internet backbones.
Linkstate routing protocol that enables routers to share information ,can independently map the network and can determine the best path between itself and the destination node.
OSPF open shortest path first routing protocol that makes up for some of the limitations of RIP
IS-IS intermediate system to intermediate system.designed for use on interior routers.link state routing protocol.
EIGRP enhanced interior gateway routing protocol.fast convergence time and low network overhead.easier to configure and less CPU intensive that OSPF.supports multiple protocols and limits unnecessary network traffic.
DHCP dynamic host configuration protocol.assigns IP address and eliminates the possibility of duplicate addressing.
STP switching protocol.prevents traffic loops by identifying paths that could lead to loops.recalculates data paths.
RSTP detects and corrects any network changes
ARP obtains the physical address of the host and creates a local database that maps the MAC address to the hosts logical IP address.
Bridge ID bridges MAC address and a combination of a 2 byte priority field
modular router multiple slots that can hold different interface cards
PCMCIA developed and interface for connecting any type of portable device to any computer
PC Card standard that specifies a 16 bit interface ruunning at 8 MHz for externally attached devices
Express Card standard that allows external devices to connect to portable computers thru a 26 pin interface
USB standard external bus used to connect multiple peripherals
Firewire peripheral standard.can be used to network pcs in a bus fashion.
Compact Flash standard for ultrasmall removable data and input/output device capable of connecting many kinds of external peripherals to workstations
interior router directs data between nodes on an autonomous Lan or one owned by a single organization
IRQ msg sent to a pc that instructs it to stop what it is doing and pay attention to something else.
Memory range hexadecimal number.indicates the area of memory that the NIC and CPU will use for exchanging,buffering data.
Firmware hardware and software.hardware is a ROM chip that stores data established at the factory and possibly changed by configuration programs that can write to ROM
VLANs a network within a network that is logically defined by grouping its devices switch ports in the same broadcast domain.
exterior router operate on the Internet backbone.direct data between nodes external to a given autonomous LAN .
dynamic routing automatically calculates the best path between two nodes and stored it in a table
routing protocols used to collect data about current network status and help determine the best path
convergence time time it takes for a router to recognize the best path if anything changes.
WAN network that connects two or more LANs
bus topology WAN uses different locations with each one connected to another thru point to point links to transmit and receive data
ring topology WAN connects locations rathern then local nodes.relies on redundant rings to carry data.
star topology WAN a single site acts as a central connection point for several other points.provides seperate routes for data between any two sites.
full mesh topology WAN includs many interconnected sites which means data can travel directly from ints origin to its destination and can quickly br rerouted when necessary.
partial mesh WAN topology only critical WAN sites are directly interconnected
plain old telephone service includes the entire telephone system,incudes the wires that enter homes and businesses to the network centers they connect to
central office place where phone companies terminate lines and switch calls from different locations
x.25 analog packet switching technology designed for long distance data transmission.guarantee data delivery
frame relay digital packet switching technology designed for long distance data transmission.no guarantee data delivery
switched virtual circuits connections that are established then terminated after the transmission is complete
permanent virtual circuits connections that are established before data needs to be terminated and maintained after the transmission is complete
committed information rate service provider guarantees a minimum amount of bandwith
Integrated services digital network specifies protocols at the physical,data link and transport layers of the OSI model.relies on PSTN for transmission medium.
Integrated services digital network protocols handle signaling,framing,connection setup and termination,routing,flow control, error detection and correction
terminal adapter converts digital signals into analog signals for use with ISDN phones and other analog devices
T-carrier standard that specifies a method of signaling that belongs to the physical layer and uses time division multiplexing over two wire pairs,one for transmitting and one for receiving, to divide a single channel into multiple channels.
smart jack terminates T-wire pairs and functions as a monitoring point for the connection.does not interpret data.
channel service unit provides termination for the digital signal and ensures connection integrity thru error correction and line monitoring
data service unit converts the T carrier frames into frames the LAN can interpret and vice versa
digital subscriber line span only limited distances without the help of repeaters.support multiple data and voice channels over a single line.operates over public switched telephone network.
downstream data traveling from the carriers switch facility to the customer
upstream data traveling from the customer to the carriers switch facility
asymmetrical technology that offers more throughput on one direction then the other
symmetrical technology that offers equal capacity for data traveling both upstream and downstream
cable modem a device that modualtes and demodulates signals for transmission and reception via cable wiring
asynchronous transfer mode standard prescribes both network access and signal multiplexing techniques
asynchronous a communications method.a node can transmit at any instant and the destination node must accept it.
synchronous optical network specifies framing and multiplexing techniques at the physical layer.
synchronous means that data being transmitted and received by nodes must conform to a timing scheme.
synchronous optical network double ring topology over fiber optic cable
SONET ring begins and ends at the telecommunications carrier facility
optical carrier data rate of a particular synchronous optical network
sonet technology relies on fiber optic cable,expensive to implement,
remote access service dial up networking software
routing and remote access service enables a computer to accept multiple remote client connections over any type of transmission path
routing and remote acces service enables a server to act as a router which determines where to direct incoming packets across the network.
Serial Line Internet Protocol protocol that enables a workstation to connect to another computer using a serial connection and carries only IP packets.
Point to Point protocol protocol that enables a workstation to connect to another computer using a serial connection
Point to point protocol can automatically obtain the IP address as it connects to the server
Serial Line Internet protocol must specify the IP address for the client and the server
virtual network computing system designed to allow one workstation to remotely manipulate and receive screen updates from another workstation
open source software where no one pays licensing fees to use it.
virtual private networks are wide area networks that are logically defined over public transmission networks
virtual private networks allows access to only authorized users.traffic is isolated from other traffic on the same public lines
tunneling
point to point tunneling protocol
Layer 2 tunneling protocol
two types of ISDN connections BRI and PRI
most common T carrier implementations T1 and T3
synchronous optical network advantages fast data transfer rates,allows simple link additions and removals,high degree of fault tolerance
data link layer protocols point to point,serial line internet,
asynchronous transfer mode fixed packets,connection oriented,fourty eight bytes of data
virtual privat enetworks one way to construct a WAN from existing puiblic transmission systems
tunneling protocols point to point and Layer 2
digital subscriber line physical layer
digital subscriber line access multiplexer aggregates multiple dsl line before connecting them to the Internet or another carrier
Created by: cgeaski