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Peds Visual Function

OTA Exam - Instrumental Activities of Daily Living

Oculomotor Skills multiple coordinated eye movements produced by the eye muscles difficulty in finding and holding the correct head position interferes with maintaining a stable visual field which provides the base of support for the eye movements examples include reading, writing, and finding keys on a keyboard interventions include having the child ride a scooter board in prone while reaching for toys
Visual Field the entire area that can be seen while the eye is fixing or gazing steadily at a target in the direct line of vision strong neck muscles are needed for a stable visual field
Visual Fixation sustained eye gaze in the direction of a target is necessary for adls and iadls children who have limited convergence, or "simultaneous turning of the eyes inward," are unable to bring their eyes together well enough to see objects close their face interventions include encouraging child to watch an appealing object move slowly toward their nose
Head-Eye Dissociation the ability to move the eyes independently without moving the head the inability to separate head and eye movements interferes with writing and finding symbols on a communication board children who have poor visual tracking skills (following moving targets with smooth eye movements) often lose focus while trying to follow or find an object interventions include moving a toy in vertical, horizontal, and circular movements while the child watches. playing with cars, bubbles, and balloons also helps
Quick Localization pinpointing items with the eyes required to find the next line of text while reading interventions include connect-the-dot, mazes, cards games, shape matching activities (chose activities that require moving eyes quickly between targets)
Oculomotor Interfering Factors weakness of neck and eye muscles, poor discrimination or interpretation of proprioceptive feedback in the neck and eyes, nystagmus (involuntary jerking of eyes) interventions include strengtheing exercises for neck flexion and extension
Visual Perception the ability to interpret and use what is seen. the capacity to interpret sensory input, recognize similarities and differences, and assign meaning to what is seen the ability to discern edges, shapes, light and dark, figure-ground discrimination, visual closure, and spatial orientation and relations it requires cognitive analysis and perception through sight
Object Perception visual identification of objects by color, texture, shape, and size: what things are
Form Constancy the recognition of forms and objects as the same various environments, positions, and sizes allows children to recognize a letter as the same whether it is lowercase, uppercase, cursive, or italic interventions include having the child compare the details of various pictures or shapes to determine whether the forms are the same
Figure-ground Discrimination the ability to distinguish important foreground features from background objects examples include finding a pencil on a cluttered desk interventions include worksheets such as "Where's Waldo" and "Find What's Different." these worksheets are available in bookstores and equipment catalogs
Spacial Perception visual location of objects in space: where things are. provides the awareness of an object's position in relation to the observer or the perception of the direction in which it is turned provides basis for concepts: in, out, off, on, beside behind. usually begins to develop around 30 months of age examples include deciphering one word as separate from another while reading and to space letters evenly while writing interventions include using directional terms during their actions, provide obstacle courses and playground activities in which the child must use spacial concepts
Visuomotor Skills require coordination of the eyes with the hands or feet such that the eyes guide complex, precise limb movements also referred to as eye-hand/eye-foot skills examples include following dot-to-dot patterns, drawing, writing, using a computer, cutting with scissors, moving through an obstacle course
Visual Acuity the capacity to discriminate the fine details of objects in the visual field. a descriptive means of expressing the sharpness, clearness, and distinctness of vision
Referral is recommended when... the child brings objects close to eyes, squints, appears uable to see obstacles and people, unable to see writing on blackboard the COTA should watch for asymmetry in the eyes, how the eyes and head moves, skipping words or lines when reading, difficulty finding symbols or pictures on a communication board
Gaze Shift accurately moving the eyes from one target to another required to find the next line of text while reading interventions include connect-the-dot, mazes, cards games, shape matching activities (chose activities that require moving eyes quickly between targets)
Created by: serugh
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