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CMW Chp 8

Chapter 8 Vocabulary

Adware Program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on web pages, e-mail, or other internet services
Anti-spam Programs Program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches a user’s inbox
Antivirus Program Program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files
BIOS Basic Input/output System; firmware that contains the computer’s startup instructions
Cold Boot Process of turning on a computer that has been powered off completely
Command-line Interface Type of user interface in which a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard
Compressed Files/Zipped
Computer Virus A segment of self-replicating code planted illegally in a computer program, often to damage or shut down a system or network
Cross Platform Program that runs the same on multiple operating systems
Defragmentating Reorganizing a disk so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors, thus speeding up disk access and the performance of the entire computer
Diagostic Utility Utility program that compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems
Disk Defragmenter Utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster
Disk Scanner Utility that searches for and removes unnecessary files
DOS Disk Operating System
Driver Small program that tells an operating system how to communicate with a specific device
Encryption/Decryption Process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access
Fault Tolerant Computer Computer that has duplicate components so it can continue to operate when one of its main components fail
File Manager Utility that performs functions related to file management
Filters Audio edition software feature designed to enhance audio quality
Folder Specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents
Graphic User Interface (GUI) Type of user interface that allows a user to interact with software using text, graphics, and visual images, such as icons
Kernel The core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the computer’s clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer’s resources
Malware Short for malicious software; programs that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter a computer’s operations
Memory Resident Remaining in memory while a computer is running
Network Administrator Employee who configures, installs, and maintains LANs, WANs, intranets, and Internet systems; identifies and resolves connectivity issues
Nonresident Instructions that remain on a hard disk until they are needed
Operating System Set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware devices
Password Private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources
Performance Monitor Operating system program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices
Phishing Scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information
Platform Set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources
Pop-up Blocker Filtering program that stops pop-up ads from displaying on web pages
Screen Saver/Ghosting Utility program that causes a display device’s screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no mouse activity occurs for a specific time
Shortcut Icon on the desktop that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file
Single User/Multitasking In reference to an operating system, allowing a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time
Single User/Single Tasking In reference to an operating system allowing only one user to run one program at a time
Spyware Program places on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user
System Software Software that serves as the interface between the user, the app software, and the computer’s hardware
Trojan Horse Malicious-logic program names after the Greek myth that hides within or looks like a legitimate program
User Interface The portion of software that defines how a user interacts with a computer, including how the user enters data an instructions and how information is displayed on the screen
USer Name Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that identifies a specific user
Utility Program Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs
Virtual Memory A portion of a storage medium, usually the hard disk, that the operating system allocates to function as additional RAM
Warm Boot Worm Process of using the operating to restart a computer
Worm Malicious-logic program that copies itself repeatedly, using up system resources and possibly shutting down the system