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Ch. 8 Vocabulary

Program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on web pages, e-mail, or other internet services. Adware
Program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches a user’s inbox. Anti-spam programs
Program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files. Antivirus program
Basic input/output system; firmware that contains a computer’s startup instructions. BIOS
Process of turning on a computer that has been powered off completely. Cold boot
Type of user interface in which a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instruction. Command-line interface
Combine several files into a single compressed folder to save storage space or to share them more easily. Compressed files/zipped
Potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user’s knowledge or permission. Computer virus
Program that runs the same on multiple operating systems . Cross platform
Reorganizing a disk so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors, thus speeding up disk access and the performance of an entire computer. Defragmenting
Utility program that compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. Diagnostic utility
Utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster. Disk defragmenter
Utility that searches for and removes unnecessary files. Disk scanner
Disk operating system DOS
Small program that tells an operating system how to communicate with a specific device. Driver
Process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access/Process of deciphering encrypted data into readable form. Encryption/decryption
Computer that has duplicate components so it can continue to operate when one of its main components fail Fault tolerant computer
Utility that performs functions related to file management. File manager
Audio editing software feature designed to enhance audio quality. Filters
Specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents. Folder
Type of user interface that allows a user to interact with software using texts, graphics, and visual images, such as icons. Graphical user interface (GUI)
The core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the computers clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer’s resources. Kernel
Short for malicious software; programs that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter a computer’s operations. Malware
Remaining in memory while a computer is running. Memory resident
Employee who configures, installs, and maintains LANs, WANs, intranets, and internet systems; identifies and resolves connectivity issues. Network administrator
Instructions that remain on a hard disk until they are needed. Nonresident
Set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware devices. Operating system
Private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources. Password
Operating system program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices. Performance monitor
Scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information. Phishing
Set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources. Platform
Filtering program that stops pop-up ads from displaying on web pages. Pop-up blocker
Utility program that causes a display device’s screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no mouse activity occurs for a specific time. Screen saver/ghosting
Icon on the desktop that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file. Shortcut
In reference to another operating system, allowing a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time. Single user/multitasking
In reference to an operating system allowing only one user to run one program at a time. Single user/single tasking
Program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user. Spyware
Software that serves as the interface between the user, the application software, and the computer’s hardware. System software
Malicious-logic program named after the Greek myth that hides within or looks like a legitimate program Trojan horse
The portion of software that defines how a user interacts with a computer, including how the user enters data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen. User interface
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that identifies a specific user. User name
Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs. Utility program
A portion of a storage medium, usually the hard disk, that the operating system allocates to function as additional RAM. Virtual memory
Process of using the operating system to restart a computer. Warm boot
Malicious-logic program that copies itself repeatedly, using up system resources and possibly shutting down the system. Worm
Created by: MitchGedeon