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Ch6 Lasers

ST Lasers

Argon Laser Gas; Blue/Green Light; visible laser; travels through clear fluids; treats diabetic retinopathy; can be used through a cystoscope to vaporize bladder tumors
Gas Lasers This active medium is energized by electricity to produce the laser light. Examples include CARBON DIOXIDE, HELIUM-NEON, KRYPTON, ARGON, AND EXCIMER.
Solid Lasers An energy-producing element on a rod is energized by flash lamps to produce the laser light. Examples include RUBY and Nd:YAG.
Liquid An organic dye is energized by a laser beam to produce the laser light in various wavelengths.
Semiconductor crystals Laser energy is delivered directly to tissue through a filter or slit-lamp microscope.
NeoDymum: Yttrium-Alminum-Garnett (Nd:YAG) Laser invisible laser beam; requiring a helium neon laser aiming beam; absorbed by darker pigmented tissue; can be transmitted through clear fluids; often used to vaporize bladder tumors
Holimium: Yag Laser Discharges a pulse beam; transmitted through clear fluids, used during orthopedic/arthroscopic, atherectomy dentistry, radial keratoplasty
Krypton Laser Gas; an electrical current activates the krypton medium to create the laser energy; wavelengths vary; colors include green, yellow (most often) RED. used to destroy tissue on eye retina.
Excimer Laser Gas; ultra violet in color; absorbed by protein with minimal spread; halogens as the active medium; Destroys plaque in arteries; reshapes the cornea
Excimer Laser Excellent presision that can be achieved in cutting & coagulating tissue; gases are fatal possibility of harmful effect to exposure to ultra violet radiation
Lasers in Endoscopy used for gastrointestinal endoscopy, beam penetrates deeply for better coagulation & destructs tumor masses; used to treat angioplasisas within thin walls of the intestines
CO2 & Nd:YAG Lasers are instruments of choice for laser bronchoscopy
urethral strictures vaporize bladder tumors framents calculi in the ureter Nd:YAG
High humiidity often results in static charge leakage low humidity results in the formation of sparks
Insulators materials that inhibit the flow of electrons; poor conductors; prevent leakage of electrons
Matter anything that has mass and occupies space
Atoms composed of small particles: protons, neutrons, electrons
Atoms center the neucleus & contains protons
Electrons revolve around the nucleaus in paths called shells or orbits
Outer electrons free electrons
atoms, elecctrons, & matter based on Bohr's theory
Conductors materials that allow the flow of free electrons
Ex. of Conductors silver, copper, aluminum, zinc, brass, iron, saltwater, carbon, & some acids; Copper is most commonly used
sound wave produced by vibrating objects that set surrounding air molecules into vibrating motions
Molecules groups of atoms jooined by chemical bonds
physics work is defined as a force acting on an object to cause a dislacement
also known as the law of conservation of momentum Newton's 3rd law
PET medical imaging technique that reveals dynamic activities within the body, such as blood flow and glucose uptake in tissues
The x-ray machine utilizes electromagnetic radiation to view internal structures
Bipolar electrosurgery is used just for coagulating
The active electrode delivers the electric current to the surgical site through the tissue
Surgical lamps are resistive energy loads
Load device that transforms the electrical energy into a useful function
Ohm's law scientific law that pertains to electricity
Current measured in amps
Collimated waves that are parallel to eachother
LASER Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation
cO2: most frequently used; invisible beam; located in the middle of infrared region in electromagnetic spectrum helium-neon laser is red; no effect on surrounding tissues; precise cutting & coagulating because of energy absorbtion by cellular water content; absorption not dependant on tissue color or consistancy; does not scatter
cO2: beam is enlarged for coagulating tissue penetration depth is controlled bt power density & fluence; absorbed by water(not transmitted thru clear fluids) backstop needed; beam will go thru deeper; both beams delivered thru an articulated arm that is a hollow tube; beams are reflected off mirrors down tube
Created by: E.Ochoa
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