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QuestionAnswer
testicular mass that does not transilluminate cancer
malignant, PAINLESS, homogenous seminoma
15-35 year old man, most common testicular tumor seminoma
large cells in lobules with watery cytoplasm and fried egg appearance seminoma
malignant but radiosenstive seminoma
malignant and PAINFUL embryonal carcinoma
increased hCG and normal AFP when pure (increased AFP when mixed) embryonal carcinoma
glandular/papillary morphology. "pure" is rare embryonal carcinoma
yellow, mucinous yolk sac tumor
schiller duvall bodies primitive glomeruli, increased AFP, yolk sac tumor
malignant, increased HCG choriocarcinoma
disorder syncytiotrophoblastic and cytotrophoblastic elements choriocarcinoma
hematogenous spread to lung choriocarcinoma
gynecomastia choriocarcinoma hCG is LH analog
fibroadenoma small, mobile, firm mass with sharp edges, <35 yr
intraductal papilloma small tumor that grows in lactiferous ducts. Beneath areola
phyllodes tumor large bulky mass of CT and cysts. leaf like
most common in 6th decade phyloodes tumor
serous or bloody nipple discharge, benign intraductal papilloma
fills ductal lumen, arises from ductal hyperplasia DCIS
early malignancy w/o BM involvement DCIS
ductal, caseous necrosis, subtype of DCIS comedocarcinoma
firm, fibrous, rock hard mass with sharp margins with shsarp margins and small, glandular, dudct like cells. stellate morphology invasive ductal
worst and most invasive, most common breast cancer invasive ductal
orderly row of cells, often multiple, bilateral invasive lobular
inflammatory breast cancer dermal lymphatic invasion of breast carcinoma, peau d'orange; neoplastic cells block lymphatic drainage
paget's disease eczematous patches on nipple, large cells in epidermis with clear halo
most common cause of breast lumps from age 25 to menopause fibrocystic disease
premenstrual breast pain, multiple lesions, bilateral fibrocystic disease
hyperplasia of breast stroma fibrosis
increased acini and intralobular fibrosis sclerosing adenosis; a/w calcifications
epithelial hyperplasia increased number of epithelial cell layers in terminal duct lobule
dysuria, frequency, urgency, low back pain prostaitis
acute prostatitis bacterial - E. coli
chronic prostatitis bacterial or abacterial
nodular enlargement of lateral and middle (periurethral) lobes BPH
may lead to hydronephrosis and UTI BPH
increased FREE PSA BPH
increased total PSA with decreased fraction of free PSA prostate cancer
posterior lobe (peripheral zone) prostate cancer
normal testosterone levels, impaired spermatogenesis cryptorchidism
decreased inhibin, increased FSH, normal LH and testoerone cryptorchidism
transilluminated lesions in the serous covering of testis- hydrocele, spermatocele
increased fluid secondary to incomplete fusion of processus vaginalis hydrocele
meds that cause priapism anticoagulants, PDE5 inhibitors, antidepressants, alpha blockers, cocaine
no sexual hair, testes in labia majora, increased testosterone, estrogen, LH androgen insensitivity syndrome
AR; nl estrogen/testosterone levels, LH is normal or increased 5 alpha reductase def
defective development of GnRH cells and olfactory placode; decreased synthesis of GnRH in the hypothalamus; decreased GnRH, dec FSH, dec LH, dec testosterone, dec sperm count kallmann syndrome
cystic swelling of chorionic villi and proliferation of chorionic epithelium (trophoblast) that presents with abnormal vaginal bleeding hydatidiform mole
no fetus during 1st sonogram, snowstorm appearance hydatidiform mole
tx of hydatidiform mole dilatation and curettage and methotrexate
period when HTN occurs in preeclampsia 20 weeks gestation to 6 weeks postpartum
HTN before 20 weeks molar pregnancy
increased incidence of pre-eclampsia in whom? HTN, diabetes, chronic renal disease, autoimmune disorders
path of preeclampsia placental ischemia due to impaired vasodilation of spiral arteries, resulting in increased vascular tone
hyperreflexia, blurred vision, HA, abdominal pain, edema of face and extremities, altered mentation, thrombocytopenia, hyperuricemia preeclampsia
tx of preeclampsia magnesium sulfate; diazepam
a/w DIC, increased risk with smoking, HTN, cocaine use, painful bleeding in 3rd trimester abruptio placentae
defective decidual layer allows placenta to attach to myometrium placenta accreta
causes of oligohydramnios placental insufficiency, bilateral renal agenesis, posterior urethral valves (in males)
what causes Potter's syndrome oligohydramios
retained placental tissue may cause? postpartum hemorrhage
confirmation test for ectopic pregnancy ultrasound, increased beta HC
what would endometrial biopsy show for ectopic pregnancy? decisdualized endometrium but no chorionic villi (develop only in intrauterine pregnancy)
spindle shaped cells that are desmin positive; <4 years of age girls sarcoma botyroides (rhabdomyosarcoma variant)
causes of pripism alpha blockers, cocaine, antidepressants, PDE5 inhibitors, anticoagulants, sickle cell, trauma
SCC of penis more common in Asia, Africa, South America; commonly associated with HPV, lack of circumcision
tunica vaginalis lesions lesions in the serous covering of testis- present as testicular masses that can be transilluminated
androblastoma from sex cord stroma sertoli cell testicular nongerm cell tumor
contains reinke crystals; androgen producing, gynecomastia in men, precocious puberty in boys, golden brown color leydig cell (unilateral)
teratoma lab values in male increased HCG and AFP in 50% of cases
gynecomastia in males testicular germ cell tumor choriocarcinoma (since hCG is an LH analog)
yolk sac tumor yellow mucinous; schiller duval bodies
malignant; painful, worse prognosis than seminoma; glandular/papillary morphology in males embryonal carcinoma
pure is rare; most commonly mixed with other tumor types; may be a/w increased HCG, and normal AFP levels when pure embryonal carcinoma
seminoma malignant; painless, homogenous testicular enlargement; most common testicular tumor; males 15-35
Created by: ilovemusic007