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Microbiology 1

First Aid: Microbiology 1

QuestionAnswer
What component is unique to gram positive cell walls? Techoic acid
What component is unique to gram negative cell walls? Lipopolysaccharide (LPS); Endotoxin
Treponema do not gram stain well, so what method would be used to visualize this bacteria? Darkfield microscopy and fluorescent antibody staining
Mycobacteria do not gram stain well so what method is used to visualize them? Acid fast
Legionella do not gram stain well so what method is used to visualize them? Silver stain
What is more fatal, exotoxin or endotoxin? exotoxin
What induces high-titer antibodies and is used in vaccines, exotoxin or endotoxin? exotoxin
Which is NOT secreted from the cell, exotoxin or endotoxin? endotoxin
Binds directly to MHC-II and T-cell receptor activating T cells to release IFN-gamma and IL-2 Superantigens; TSST-1
Responsible for toxic shock syndrome? TSST-1 released by Staph. aureus; Strep. pyogenes can also cause toxic shock-like symptoms
Most common cause of meningitis, otitis media (children), pneumonia, and sinusitis Streptococcus pneumonia; "MOPS"
ADP-ribosylating toxin of this organism inactivates EF-2 leading to pseudomembranous pharyngitis? Corynebacterium diptheriae (Pseudomonas also inactivate EF-2 but more closely related to burn victims not pharyngitis)
ADP ribosylating toxin of these organism leads to G protein stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. B component has a preference for intestinal epithelium. Vibrio cholerae; E. coli has a heat labile toxin that works in a similar manner to cause watery diarrhea
This organisms heat stable toxin stimulates guanylate cyclase (instead of adenylate cyclase like its heat labile counterpart) E. coli
ADP ribosylating toxin stimulates adenylate cyclase to cause whooping cough? Bordetella pertussis
The alpha-toxin of this organism causes gas gangrene and double zone of hemolysis on blood agar. Clostridium perfringens
Toxin of this organism blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine? C. tetani; causes "lockjaw"
Toxin of this organism blocks the release of acetylcholine? C. botulinum; causes flaccid paralysis "floppy baby"
Toxin of this organism kills enterocytes resulting in pseudomembranous colitis? C. difficile, often secondary to the antibiotic clindamycin or ampicillin
This toxin cleaves host cell rRNA? Shiga toxin produced by shigella (also produced by some strains of E. coli)
The toxin of this organism is a hemolysin? streptolysin O of S. pyogenes(Beta hemolytic)
Endotoxin activates release of what factors from macrophages? IL-1 (fever), TNF (fever, hemorrhagic tissue necrosis), NO (hypotension)
Endotoxin activates which members of the complement pathway? C3a and C5a
Endotoxin activates what factor to cause DIC? Hageman factor
How would you differentiate between N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae (lab test)? Meningitidis ferments maltose and gonorrhoeae does not
How would you differentiate between the cocci staphylococcus and streptococcus? Staph is catalase positive and strep is catalase negative
What are 3 common gram positive rods? Clostridium, listeria, bacillus, corynebacterium
This coccoid rod requires chocolate agar with factor V and X for isolation. Haemophilus influenzae
This obligate aerobe requires a Lowenstein-Jensen agar for isolation? M. tuberculosis
PAS positive macrophages are found in this disease. Whipple's disease
This organism is identified by india ink. Cryptococcus neoformans
This two organisms are difficult to gram stain because they can't make their own ATP. Rickettsia and chlamydia, intracellular organisms
How would you distinguish strep pneumonia from viridans streptococci? Both are catalase negative (strep) and alpha hemolytic; pneumo is optochin sensitive and viridans is optochin resistant
Ingestion of this gram positive cocci's preformed toxin is a common cause of food poisening. Staphylococcus aureus
This organisms of normal flora can cause subacute endocarditis? Viridans streptococci (often as dental procedure sequelae)
This organism of normal flora can infect prosthetic devices, catheters, and contaminate blood cultures. Staphylococcus epidermidis
This gram positive, spore forming bacilli produces an alpha toxin that can cause myonecrosis, gas gangrene, or hemolysis. C. perfringens
Gram positive, spore forming bacilli that can cause painless ulceration on skin contact or progressive pulmonary problems on inhalation. Bacillus anthracis
Treatment for gram-positive rods forming long branching filaments resembling fungi. Actinomyces israelii and Nocardia asteroides; SNAP (Sulfa for Nocordia, Actinomyces use Penicillin)
The outer membrane layer of these organisms inhibit entry of penicillin G and vancomycin. Gram negative bugs; some may however be susceptible to derivatives of penicillin G such as ampicillin
Created by: rahjohnson