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Microbiology 4

First Aid: Microbiology 4

QuestionAnswer
What are the DNA viruses? HHAPPPy viruses!; Hepadna, herpes, adeno, pox, parvo, papova
What is the only single stranded DNA virus family? Parvo
What are the two non-linear DNA viruses? Papovavirus and Hepadna
What is the only DNA virus that is not icosahedral? Pox; complex structure
What is the only DNA virus that does not replicate in the nucleus? Pox; carries its own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
What are the 3 naked DNA virus families? PAP; Parvo, adeno, papova
What are the 3 naked RNA virus families? CPR; Calicivirus, Reovirus, picornavirus
What is the only RNA virus that is not single stranded? Reovirus
What are the viruses in the picornavirus family? "PERCH on a peak (pico)"; Polio, Echo, Rhino, Coxsackie, HAV
What are the viruses in the herpesvirus family? HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV6, HHV8
From what families do the hepatitis viruses come from? B, hepadna; A, picorna; C, Flavi; D, Delta; E, Calici
This virus is a common cause of conjunctivitis. "pink eye"; adenovirus
This virus causes aplastic crises in sickle cell disease, "slapped cheeks" rash (erythema infectiosum, and hydrops fetalis. B19 parvovirus
These HPV and JCV belong to this viral family Papovavirus
This virus is can cause molluscum contagiosum in the immunosuppressed. Poxvirus
Norwalk virus belongs to this family, along with HEV Calicivirus
Colorado tick fever and rotavirus belong to this family of virus. Reovirus
This is the #1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children. Rotavirus; remember only 3 viruses cause diarrhea (rotavirus, norwalk, and adeno)
Yellow fever, dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, and West nile virus all belong to this family of virus. Flavivirus
This family of virus include rubella, eastern and western equine encephalopathies Togavirus
These viruses have reverse transcriptase? Retroviruses and HBV
This family of viruses are generally attributed with the common cold and SARS. Coronavirus; (rhinovirus is also a cause of the common cold but belongs to pico family)
The influenza virus are within this family of virus. Orthomyxoviruses
This family of viruses include parainfluenza, RSV, measles, and mumps. paramyxoviruses
Rabies family of viruses. Rhabdovirus
This family includes Ebola and marburg hemorrhagic fever. Filoviruses
This disease is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV patients. JCV
This virus is not a retrovirus but has reverse transcriptase. HBV
These viruses must transcribe negative strand to positive using RNA polymerase. Negative-stranded viruses; Arena, Buny, Paramyxo, Orthomyxo, Filo, Rhabdo (Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication!)
This virus is the cause of the common cold. Rhinovirus; 100 serotypes (Coronavirus is also cause of common cold)
Patient presents with parotitis, orchitis, and aseptic meningitis. Diagnosis? Mumps virus
Patient presents with bluish-gray spots on buccal mucosa. Diagnosis? Measles virus
What is genetic drift and genetic shift, and which is worse? Drift is minor changes based on random mutation, this is the cause of epidemics; Shift is reassortment of viral genomes (such as human flu A recombines with swine flu A), this is the cause of pandemics and is much worse.
What is the treatment for influenza? Amantadine and rimantidine for influenza A; Zanamivir and oseltamivir (neuraminidase inhibitors) are useful for both A and B
Negri bodies (cytoplasmic inclusions in neurons) are often found in this fatal encephalitis. Rabies
Patient presents with fever, black vomitus, and jaundice. Councilman bodies (acidophilic inclusions) may be seen in liver. Yellow fever; jaundice makes you yellow, "Flavi" means yellow in latin.
Patient presents with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy in posterior auricular nodes. Positive monospot test. EBV; mononucleosis, monospot test is heterophil antibodies detected by agglutination of sheep RBC's (used to distinguish EBV from CMV in mono)
What is the Tzanck test? Smear of an opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells in HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV
How is HAV transmitted? fecal-oral transmission
How is HBV transmitted? Parenteral, sexual, and maternal-fetal routes
How is HCV transmitted? primarily via blood
How is HEV transmitted? enterically and causes water-borne epidemics
Which hepatitis variants predispose to cirrhosis, hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma? HBV and HCV
This hepatitis variant requires HBV coinfection HDV; requires HBsAg as envelope
This from of hepatitis is particularly fatal in pregnant women. HEV
This hepatitis is chronic and generates the most carriers. HCV; chronic, cirrhosis, carriers
This is a marker for active hepatitis A infection. IgM HAVAb
This marker indicates HBV carrier state. HBsAg
This marker indicates immunity to HBV. HBsAb
This marker indicates recent HBV infection. HBcAb
This hepatitis marker indicates high transmissibility. HBeAg (e antigen is a second core antigen, antibodies to HBeAb, indicate lower transmissibility)
Both acute HBV and chronic carriers of HBV have positive HBsAg and HBcAb and negative HBsAb. How are the two distinguished? Active disease has HBcAb of the IgM variety, whereas chronic carriers have IgG HBcAb (also carriers actually have HbsAb, but it's all bound to HBsAg)
What tests are used to determine HIV infection? ELISA (high false pos, low threshold) followed by Western blot (high false neg, high threshold)
What is PCR used for in HIV patients? Monitor viral load, used to follow drug therapy in patients
What mutation conveys HIV immunity? CCR5 homozygotes (heterozygotes follow a slower course)
What mutation conveys a rapid progression to AIDS? CXCR1 mutation
What oppurtunistic infections frequent the brain in AIDS patients? cryptococcus, toxoplasmosis, CMV, and JCV (PML)
What oppurtunistic infections affect the eyes in AIDS patients? CMV retinitis
What oppurtunistic infections affect the lungs of AIDS patients? Pneumocystis carinii, TB, histoplasmosis
What oppurtunistic infections affect the skin of AIDS patients? VZV (shingles), and HHV-8 (Kaposis sarcoma), Pox (molluscom contagiosum)
Created by: rahjohnson