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OTA40 Final Exam 3

in response to some stimulus, such as distended bladder, fecal mass, thermal or pain stimuli. Symptoms are immediate pounding headache, perspiration, flushing, sudden onset of hypertension. medical emergency, life-threatening (T4 and above), sit upright Autonomic dysreflexia
Low blood pressure when changing body position from supine to upright, symptoms of include dizziness, nausea, and loss of consciousness. Patient should be reclined quickly and legs should be elevated until symptoms subside Orthostatic hypertension
Why are SCI patients at risk for pressure ulcers? What are ways to prevent? Sensory loss and prolonged sitting increase risk – repositioning, skin checks, proper cushions
What is osteoporosis of disuse? How do we combat this? Osteoporosis that develops in patients with SCI because of disuse of long bones, causing pathological fractures; a standing program could be beneficial to slow onset
Do SCI clients have spasticity? Why? Yes, it is an involuntary muscle contraction below the level of injury that results from lack of inhibition from the brain
metabolic disease marked by buildup of uric acid, middle aged men mostly Gout
wear and tear/injury/overuse Osteoarthritis
chronic, systemic, authoimmune disease Rheumatoid arthritis
arthritic condition found in children Juvenile RA
systemic symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite, fever, overall achiness or stiffness, and wt loss, outstanding clinical feature is synovitis, Bilateral and symmetrical, MCPs and PIPs, wrist, thumb, ulnar drift RA
breakdown in cartilage in specific joints, pain, stiffness, wear with age or overuse, PIP, DIP, CMC often, weight-bearing joints OA
rapid onset, inflamed joints, redness, extreme heat, pain, usually affects one joint, often the big toe Gout
Know the common PAMs for RA and OA Heat, TENS, biofeedback, paraffin, moist or dry heat packs, limit to 20 mins to avoid edema
What do we teach to help protect joints? Why? Rest, positioning, PAMs, exercise, therapeutic activity, splinting, ADL training, and patient education to decrease pain and inflammation to improve functioning and participation
What can we do for a Boutinniere or Swan neck deformity? Which is more difficult to function with? Daily ROM, gentle stretches, splinting; Boutinniere looks worse but doesn’t impair function as much
What is the rule of thumb about RA and exercise? If pain from exercise lasts more than 1 hr, vigor of exercise should be decreased
Hip Fractures & LE Joint Replacements – what is an ORIF? Open reduction internal fixation
What is the most common type of Hip fracture in the elderly? Femoral neck fracture
What is the #1 cause of THA? OA
What is the role of OT team in acute care (hospital)? Check and reinforce precautions, understand risks, educate patients in adaptive equipment and collaborate with treatment team. Teach the patient ways and means of performing daily occupations safely so the patient can return home
What is the MOST important thing to DO FIRST in acute care? Check patient's identity and chart
What are hip precautions? What various methods would you use to teach them? Think about teaching your elderly family member Hip precautions are positions to avoid so that dislocation does not occur following surgery. Use demonstration, words, pictures to educate
What are some typical treatment sessions an OTA might do in acute care with a THA? TKA? Education on adaptive equipment and precautions. Bed mobility, education on different transfers (ie: out of bed, shower, commode, car) LB dressing and bathing
Understand weight-bearing restrictions and how to functionally ambulate with each one NWB= Zero weight TTWB = 10% PWB = 50% WBAT = up to patient’s discretion FWB = 100%
What are SCD’s? Why are they important? sequential compression device (also known as Lymphodema pumps) are designed to limit the development of Deep Vein Thrombosis in immobile patients
Why is it important to get up out of bed ASAP after surgery? To prevent de-conditioning and DVT’s from forming
Who has to write an “Out of Bed (OOB)” order? Doctor
Amputation – which is more common, UE or LE? UE
What is most common cause of UE amputation? Trauma
What level of UE amputation has the most function? Transmetacarpal or partial hand amputations
What are the functional restrictions of a body powered device? Body-powered devices are voluntary-opening or voluntary-closing, meaning that users must open and close the terminal device by applying force through their cable system. depend on user’s physical ability. “set-up” can be time consuming
What is cosmesis? How a prosthesis looks
What is the golden rule about fitting a patient with a prosthetic? To get them fitted early, within 30 days!
What are the disadvantages of myoelectric prostheses Higher initial cost, heavier, higher repair cost, dependence on battery life
What are the advantages of myoelectric prostheses lighter, does not require a harness or cable, therefore, be built to look more like a real arm making it more aesthetically pleasing, battery-powered so body strength and body movement are not as important for their operation, provide a strong grip forc
Know the basic sequence of UE Prosthetic training program, and understand what is done in each step Stump shrinkage, desensitization of stump, maintain ROM at joints, build prosthetic skills, adjust to loss, achieve I in ADL
How should you position a LE amputee? Why? Avoid placing pillows beneath the knee of a transtibial amputee and under the stump of a transfemoral amputee to prevent muscle contractures and reduces edema
What is the problem if it is done wrong? Amputee typically develops a flexion, external rotation, and contracture of the affected hip. The tt. Amputee develops an external rotation deformity of the hip and flexion of the knee
results when the heart cannot pump effectively and fluid backs up into the lungs or the body Congestive Heart Failure
aka heart attack Myocardial infarction
What are cardiac risk factors? Unchangeable factors: heredity, sex, and age Changeable factors: cholesterol, cigarette, HBP, and an inactive lifestyle Contributing factors: diabetes, stress, obesity
What is cardiac rehab? What is the time period of concern following a MI? The first 1 to 3 days after
What are key things we monitor with clients with cardiac dysfunction? Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Rate Pressure Product
one of the most common lung diseases. makes it difficult to breathe, There are two main forms of COPD: Chronic bronchitis, Emphysema. Smoking, Exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace, exposure to heavy amounts of secondhand smoke and pollutio COPD
What are the classic breathing techniques we teach? Pursed lip breathing, diaphragmatic breathing
What is the main OT strategy we teach clients with COPD? Energy conservation
Is a serious disorder that occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks part of the nervous system, leads to nerve inflammation that causes muscle weakness. Recovery can take weeks,months, or years. Most people survive and recover completely Guillan-Barre Syndrome
What is one important fact to remember about exercise?
Indications and contraindication
What does OT do?
Group therapy dynamics – what are the considerations? communication and coordination, roles / relationship, who leads, who defers, balance of task focus vs social focus, level of group effectiveness, how conflict is handled, emotional state of the group as a whole
How do you plan a therapy group? Decide the number, gather materials, decide on location and time, gather group and introduce yourself and each other (if necessary), provide instruction on activities and timing, have a follow-up at the end to discuss.
Who should be in a group? Clients with similar dysfunction
Created by: NCBuckeye11
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