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Path BRS ch. 3

hemodynamic dysfunction

heart failure cells hemosiderin laden macrophages from capillary rupture caused by left sided heart failure and pulmonary congestion
what do platelets release after adhesion? ADP, histamine, serotonins, PDGF
how do platelets make thromboxane A2, and what does thromboxane A2 (TxA2) do? cyclooxygenase pathway from arachidonic acid. potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregant
PGI2 - who makes it, and what does it do? made by endothelial cells, antagonistic to platelet TxA2.
what activates antithrombin? and what does it do? heparin. endothelial cells release heparin-like molecules
what molecules promote aggregation? ADP thrombin, TxA2, collagen, epinephrine, PAF
what do endothelial cells do to prevent aggregation? produce heparin-like molecules, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), degrades ADP, clears thrombin, activates protein c (APC) which cleaves Va and VIIIa. synthesizes protein S (APC cofactor) and synthesizes PGI2 and NO
what does XIIa do? activates intrinsic pathway, activates prokallikrein to kallikrein, which in turn activates HMWK to bradykinin, and plasminogen to plasmin. Plasmin degrades fibrin, and activates complement
what does APC (active protein c) cleave? Va and VIIIa
factor V leiden altered cleavage site on facto V normally recognized by APC
prothrombin 20210A transition most common hereditary thrombophilia. mutation in prothrombin gene - elevated plasma prothrombin levels.
anticardiolipin antibody associated with SLE, gives false positive tests for syphilis
"lupus anticoagulant" antiphospholipid antibody that increases thrombosis. It actually shows an in vitro artifact prolonged PTT time. It is often associated with SLE
HIT syndrome heparin induced thrombocytopenia. Antibodies against heparin-platelet factor 4 complex.
what causes mural thrombi of left atrium and left ventricle atrium: mitral stenosis, ventricle: myocardial infarction
what is a paradoxical embolus? venous embolus that went to arterial side by way of right-to-left shunt (ASD, or foramen ovale)
amniotic fluid in the blood... means embolus, and DIC
what is anasarca generalized edema
most important anatomic finding in shock acute tubular necrosis
Created by: iplayguitar



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