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wk 9-20 pg42-49

micro wk 2. pg 43-2-49

micro wk2. pg42-49 (blank)
What binds proteins involved in cell wall synthesis previnting cross linking of glycan chains by tetrapeptides? a. Penicillin
q. Is penicillin more effective against Gram positive bacterium? a. Yes, due to increased concentration of PTG, also peniclin derivatives produced to protect against Gram negatives.
q. where are lysozymes produced? a. body fluids including tears and saliva.
q. what breaks bonds linking NAG and NAM destroying structural integrity of cell wall? a. Lysozymes
q. Lysozymes are often used in laboratory to remove ________layer from bacteria. a. PTG
q. (blank)
Lysozyme enzyme often used in laboratory to remove PTG layer from bacteria, produces protoplast in G+ bacteria and produces ________________ in G- bacteria. a. spheroplast
q. Differences in cell wall account for differences in staining characteristics. Gram positive bacterium retain what kind of Gram stain? a. Gram positive bacterium retain crystal violet iodine complex of Gram Stain.
q. what lose crystal violet iodine complex? a. Gram negative bacterium lose crystal violet-iodine complex.
q. Some bacterium naturally lack cell wall, such as mycoplasma(causes pneumonia), thus antimicrobial directed towards cell wall are ineffective, but what gives the membrane its strength you say. a. Sterols in membrane account for strength of membrane.
q. Bacteria in what domain have a wide variet of cell wall types? a. domain archaea,
q. do they contain PTG? a. no, but they do contain pseudopeptidoglycan.
q. Layers external to the cell wall. What is the general function of the capsules and slime layer? A. protects bacteria from hosts defenses and enables bacteria to adhear to specific surfaces.
q. What is diff. between capsule and slime layer? a. capsule is a distinct gelatinous layer and a slime layer is an irregular diffuse layer.
q. most capsules and slime layers have a chemical composition of polysaccharide which is refered to as a _____________. a. glycocalyx
q.some bacteria have protein appendages which include____________ and _______________. a. flagella and Pili
q. Flagella are long protein structures that can rotate more than ten thousand revolutions per minor 82 miles per hour. and some are important in ________________. a. bacterial pathogenisis.
q. what are the three basic parts to a flagella? a. filament, hook and basal body.
q. What does the filament do? a. filament extends to exterior and is made of proteins called flagellin.
q. What does the hook do? a. connects the filament to the cell.
q. What does the Basal body do? a. Basal body anchors the flagellum into the cell wall.
q. Bacterian uses flagella for motility through sensing chemicals called? a. chemotaxis
q. If the chemical compound is a neutrient it acts a an ______________? a. attractant
q. if compound is toxic acts as an? a. repellent.
q. Flagellar Arrangement. A single flagellum at one pole? a. Monotrichous
q. A single flagellum at both poles? a. Amphitrichous
q. What is two or more flagella at one or both poles of the cell? Lophotrichous.
q. What is Peritrichous? a. completely surrounded by flagella.
q. What is considerabley shorter and thinner than flagella and is composed of protein subunits? a. Pili
q. what are the three functions of pili? a. attachment, movement, conjugation.
q. what are the pili called for attachment? a. fimbre
q. Is pili conjugation a mechanism of DNA transfer? a. yes.***
Internal Structures. bacterial cells have a variety of internal structures, some of which are essential for life(chromosome- DNA, and Ribosome -synthesyze proteins, while others are optional and can confire selective advantages such as a. plasmid, storage granules, and endospores.
q. What resides in cytoplasm in nucleoid space, is typically single chromosome, circular double-stranded molecule,contains all genetic information and has no nuclear membrane? a. Chromosome
q. circular DNA molecule-generally 0.1%-10.0% size of chromosome? a. Plasmid
q. what is extrachromosomal(independently replicating) and encode characteristic-potentially enhances survival(antimicrobial resistance)? a. Plasmid
q. What are involved in protein synthesis and are composed of large and small subunits made of riboprotein and ribosomal RNA? a. Ribosome
q. what are Prokaryotic ribosomal subunits? a. 30s +50s -70s
q. Larger thatn eukaryotic ribosomes? a. 40S +60S -80S differences often used as target for antimicrobials.
q. what are an accumulation of polymers synthesized from excess nutrients (exp. glycogen)?f a. Storage granules
q. What are small protein compartments that provid buoyancy to cell, and regulat vesicles allowing organism to reach ideal position in environment? a. Gas vesicles
q. What are dormant cell types produced through sporulation theoretically remain dormant for 100 years and are resistant to damaging conditions such a heat, desiccation, chemicals and uv light? a. Endospores
q. a vegetative cell is produced through _____________. a. germination.
q. when does germinatiom occur. a. after exposure to heat or chemicals but is not a source of reproduction.
q. what two produce endospores? a. Genus Bacillus and Clostridium produce endospores.
q. what is sporulation a. the production of endospores.
Endospore formation is a complex ordered sequence. Bacteria sense starvation and begin sporulation. what is the first step of sporulation? A. Growth stops.
Step 2. a. DNA duplicates
step 3. a. Cell splits unevenly
q. what produces the forespore within the mother cell? a. the cell splits and the larger component engulfs small component, producing a forspore within mother cell,
q. how many membranes is the forspore enclosed by? a. forespore is enclosed by two membranes.
q.Step 4, what becomes the core of the endospore? a. Step 4, the forespore becomes the core of the endospore.
q. step 5? a. PTG between bembranes forms core wall and cortex.
q. what forms core wall and cortex? a. PTG between membranes.
q. step 6? a. Mother cell proteins produce spore coat.
q. what produces the spore coat. a. Mother cell proteins.
q. Step 7? a. Mother cell degrades and releases endospore.
q. what degrades and releases endospore? a. mother cell.
q. Intracellular Structure. where are endospores seen? a. in Bacillus and Clostridium.
Q. When do vegetative cells develope into endospores? a. Vegetative cells develop into endospores when there is low amount of carbon or nitrogen.
q. how many spores does one bacteria create? a. one spore for one bacteria.
q. how many spores from one fungi? a. fungi can make millions of spores.
q. Is moisture in the spores? a. no, they are dry, (calcium inside),
q. can spores be killed from heating, drying, freezing, toxic chemicals or radiation? a. No
q. Why are spores so resistant. a. Resistance is because of thich spore coat and Dipicolinic acid in the coat..
q.what kind of acid is in the spore coat?q a. Dipicolinic acid
q. what are the only ways endospores can be destroyed? a. by moist heat under pressure(autoclaves) or certain chemicals like glutaraldehydes or ethylene oxide.
q. Who is my favorit group on the campus? a. the D group, I love you guys and gal. :)
Created by: tim sopp