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JB Anatomy & Phys

Cells and Body Tissues

cells (cyte-) basic unit of structure; a living factory
cell membrane semipermeable boundary that serves as a doorway to the cell
nucleus control center that contains chromosomes (23 pair: 22 body 1 sex), genes, RNA, and DNA
cytoplasm cell substance that contains organelles (little organs)
(cytoplasm)Mitochondria cell "batteries" that store energy
(cytoplasm)Lysosomes(some: body; lyso: dissolve) carry out digestive functions of the cell
(cytoplasm)Golgo apparatus makes secretions
(cytoplasm)Endoplamic reticulum transport system and protien synthesis
(cytoplasm)Cilia (flagella) hairlike extensions responsible for motility (movement of the cell itself or fluid around the cell)
Transport across the cell membrane DIFFUSION (spreading out) molecules moving to a less concentrated area, as oxygen moving from aveoli in the lungs into capillaries
Transport across the cell membrane FILTRATION movement of molecules through a filter or a semipermeable membrane as a result of pressure
Transport across the cell membrane ACTIVE TRANSPORT use of energy to move molecules across a membrane to a higher concentration
some cells are also capable of phagocytosis (cell eating) and pinocytosis (cell drinking) as in the case of white blood cells engulphingbacteria and proximal kidney tubules reabsorbing filtered protiens
Cell Division some cells, such as RBC and nerve cells do not divide or reproduce
Body tissues collection of specialized cells designed for a special function
epithelial tissue lines (cavities and vessel, covers (body and organs), and secretes (glandular)
epithelial cells are named by their shape squamous (simple squamous and stratified squamous), cubodial, columnar
simple squamous covers surface of pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium and lines the blood vessels
stratified squamous skin, lines mouth and esophagus
cubodial (epithelial tissue lines the surface of kidney, tubules and covers ovaries
columnar lines the stomach, intestines, and part of the respiratory tract
Body tissue may be ciliated (contain hairlike cilia designed to move fluid) or non-ciliated
Body tissue regenerates readily and heals quickly
Body tissue is innervated and capable of sensations
In surgery body tissue is generally sutured with absorbable sutures (exception the skin)
cancer of the epithelial tissue is carcinoma (basal cell or squamous cell)
two types of body tissue membranes mucous membranes and serous membranes
Mocous Membranes lines cavities leading to outside, such as GI tract, GU tract, and respiratory tract
Serous Membranes lines enclosed cavities such as the peritoneum (lines abdomen), pericardium (sac that encloses heart) and pleura (lines chest)
Connective Tissue most variable and widespread tissue in the body
connective tissue has three functions Binds, Protects and Supports
6 types of connective tissue 1. Adipose (fat), 2. Fibrous (fascia), 3. Cartilage (chondra), 4. Bone (osseous tissue)5. Reticular (netlike), 6. Areolar
Adipose Tissue (fat) connective tissue that has a poor blood supply and is generally sutured with absorbable materials
Fibrous Tissue (fascia) tough connective tissue - composes sheaths, covering joints, muscles, meninges (coverings of the brain and spinal cord), synovium (lining of the synovial joints), scar tissue, tendons, and ligaments
Cartilage (chondra) elastic tissue (gristle) that has little blood supply
Bone corticle (compact)and cancellous (spongy
Corticle bone (compact) bone cells arranged in concentric circles around central (haversion) canals; make up shell of bone to provide strength and support and covered by periosteum
Cancellous Bone (spongy) bone contains spaces with red marrow for making blood cells
reticular (net like) blood and lymph tissue
areolar loose connective tissue that fills spaces and helps to hold organs in place
3 types of muscle tissue 1. skeletal, 2. smooth, 3. cardiac
skeletal muscle striated, voluntary
smooth muscle visceral (found in such organs as blood vessels and bladder), involuntary
cardiac muscle striated, involuntary
nerve tissue most highly specialized tissue
nerve tissue is found in nerves, brain and spinal cord
neurons(nerve cells) basic unit of structure in the nervous system; made up of dendrites, cell body, and axon
dendrites cell extensions that receive nerve impulses
axon extension of the cell that conducts impulses away from the cell body)
neuroglia (schwann cells) non conductive covering of peripheral nerves which provide nutrition and protection, make up the myelin sheath for the neurons and gives nerves a white glistening appearance
nerve tissue coordinates and integrates BODY FUNCTION
Body organs composed of different types of tissues and perform specific functions (liver, heart)
Body System composed of different organs working together to perform specific functions
Created by: schxoxo
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