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Psych Pharmacology


Pharmacology is the study of The actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms
In what way do drugs that act at synapses typically behave? Increase effects of a neurotransmitter They reduce effects of a neurotransmitter
Agonists Drugs that increase the effects of a neurotransmitter
Antagonist Drugs that reduce effects of a neurotransmitter
Depression is thought to involve: a deficit in serotonin activity
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Monoamine Oxide Inhibitors (MAOIs) -Anti-depressant drug -Work by increasing the activity of one or more of the monoamines
Zoloft, Paxil, Prozac are just a few examples of what class of antidepressant drugs SSRIs
How do SSRIs anti-depressant drugs work? Block the reuptake of serotonin. This inc. the activity of serotonin by allowing the nt to remain at the synapse longer and influence post-synaptic cell. SSRIs are serotonin agonists.
Side effects of SSRIs Enhance 5-HT function throughout the brain Side effects include insomnia, agitation, nausea, sexual dysfunction
5-HT is involved with what physiological factors Mood, sleep, and appetite
Nardil, Parnate are examples of what class of anti-depressant drugs MAOIs (Monoamines)
How do MAOIs function? Inhibit the activity of monoamine oxidase. This decreases the breakdown of 5-HT & NE after reuptake -This increases amount of neurotransmitters available for release.
Are MAOIs agonists or antagonists? Monoamine agonists
MAOIs exert their effect in the CNS and PNS
Common MAOIs side effects include: Changes in blood pressure, sleep problems, and overeating
MAOIs have serious food/drug interactions. What are some common food interactions? Wine, cheese, pickles, (and other foods) contain tyramine
Foods rich in tyramine have what effect on patients taking MAOIs Cause an increase in blood-pressure. It is normally broken down by MAO in the liver. Tyramine-rich food should be avoided by those taking MAOIs
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is associated with what? Low levels of GABA
GAD is treated with what? Antianxiety drugs
Benzodiazepines (BDZs) is a class of what kind of drugs? Anxiolytic drugs
Valium (diazepam) and Xanax (alprozolam) are common drugs from what class? BDZs
Common BDZs side effects are: Cognitive impairments (amnesia), sedation, and muscle relaxation (these can sometimes have therapeutic benefits)
BDZs side effects can be due to their actions in what part of the body? The cortex and brainstem
Symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with what? High levels of dopaminergic activity (in the mesolimbocortical path).
Schizophrenia is treated with Antipsychotic drugs (i.e. neuroleptics)
Antipsychotic drugs do what in schizophrenic patients? Reduce delusions and hallucinations, and decrease disorganized thinking
Thorazine and Haldol are examples of what type of drugs Antipsychotic drugs
How do antipsychotic drugs function? Block the post synaptic dopamine receptors. Because the receptors are blocked, less dopamine can bind.
Are antipsychotic drugs dopamine agonists or antagonists? Antagonists
What is a side effect of using antipsychotic drugs? Parkinsonism: Movement disorders that resemble Parkinsons. This includes tremors, slow/loss of movement, rigidity.
Parkinson's is caused by _________ in the nigrostriatal path Reduced DA (dopamine) activity
Parkinson's is the result of DA antagonism in ________ path. Nigrostriatal path
Botulinum is made by _________ found in improperly canned foods. bacterium (Clostridium botulinum)
Botulinum has pharmacological effects and is the active agent in ________. Botox
What is the effect of botulinum/botox on the body When injected locally, causes the temporary paralysis of skeletal muscles
Botulinum functions in what way Acts at the synapses between motor neurons and skeletal muscles (remember, the skeletal muscles have nicotinic ACh receptors). It blocks ACh exocytosis by preventing the fusion of synaptic vesicles with pre-synaptic membrane.
Is botulinum an agonist or antagonist Because it blocks, it is an ACh antagonist
How does Botox help to correct frown lines, worry lines, and crows-feet? 1. When injected into the area around muscles, botox causes paralysis by blocking ACh release from incoming motor neurons 2. This results in a decrease in lines and wrinkles which lasts a few months.
What are some side effects of using Botox Can cause drooping eyelids (by affecting levator muscle)
Electrical synapses (gap junctions) do not involve ________. release of any neurotransmitters
How large is the synaptic gap of an electrical synapse? 2-4nm
In electrical synapses, facing membranes have ________ that allow _________. -large channels -ions to flow directly between neurons
Electrical synapse Activity in one neuron can directly cause ______. Activity in the post-synaptic neuron
Electrical synapses (gap junction) Conduction at electrical synapses is very ____. Fast
Electrical synapses (gap junctions) are found in: circuits that mediate escape behaviors in invertebrates as well as invertebrate oculomotor systems.
Are SSRIs agonists or antagonists 5-HT agonists.
Created by: kibarra87



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