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Physiology I

Endocrine System - Test 1

What is the difference in terms of reaction time of the Nervous System vs. Endocrine system? N.S. - milliseconds Endo - seconds to hours
Within the NS is there an action potential required for a nerve impulse? Yes
Are neurotransmitters necessary for nerve conduction? Not necessarily
Are hormones and receptors necessary for signal transduction? Yes
Fact: NS stimulates & inhibits release of hormones but then hormones in turn may promote or inhibit nerve impulses. (blank)
Does the endocrine system release hormones directly in to the blood stream or through ductless glands? Yes, endocrine system uses ductless glands to relaese hormones directly into the bloodstream where specific receptors initiate responses to specific targets
What glands composes the endocrine system? 1.Pituitary 2. Thyroid 3. Parathyroid 4. Adrenals 5. Pineal 6. Thymus
What is another name for the Adrenal Glands? Suprarenal
What is another name for the pineal gland? Epiphysis cerebri
What organs contain endocrine tissue? Yeah...... About all of them
What do hormones do? 1.Regulate Internal Environment 2.Regulate smooth & cardiac muscle 3.Help regulate metabolism 4.maintain energy balance 5.regulate synthesis of new mol. 6.stimulates transportation in & out of target cells 7. Maintain Homeostasis 8.Contibutes to reprod
Hormones have powerfull effects using relatively high concentrations. True or False? False, very powerful but present in low concentrations
There are atleast 50+ kinds of hormones. True or False? True
What are hormone receptors made of? Large proteins or Glycoproteins
The Up-Down regulation of target cells simply states: The more number of receptors a target organ has, less amounts of hormones are required to effect the cell. And vice versa - the fewer receptors require higher concentrations of hormones to effect the target cell.
Hormones may be stored on blood proteins for months. True or False? True, they become active once they are dissolved in plasma
Name the 3 types of hormones? 1. Paracrine - act on neighbor cells 2. autocrine - act on releasing cell 3. Endocrine - act on distant cell
What are the 4 classes of hormones? 1.Steroids 2. Biogenic Amines 3. Peptides & Proteins 4. Eicosanoids
What is the structure of a steroid? 4 Ring Structure
What are steroids derived from? Cholesetrol
Where are steroids synthesized? In smooth ER.
Stereroids are transported in blood and are bound to what? They are bound to blood proteins as they travel through the bloodstream.
Biogenic amines are derived from what? Amino Acids
Biogenic amines are synthesized from what amino acids in particular? Tyrosine, Histidine, & Tryptophan
Tyrosine is the precursor to what? Catecholamines - Epi and Norepinephrine
Where are proteins and peptides sythesized? Rough ER
Eicosanoids are derived from what? Arachidonic Acid
What are the 2 types of Eicosanoids Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes
Endocrine Glands are avascular or vascular? Highly Vascular
Catecholamines, peptides, and proteins are water soluble or insoluble? Water soluble
Steroids and Thyroid hormones travel through the blood stream bound to what blood protein in particular? Albumin
Transport proteins are produced by what organ? Liver
Hydrophobic molecules alone are insoluble, but when bound to _________ makes them water soluble. Transport proteins
What is the free fraction of a hormone? Hormone free in the blood plasma that can bind to receptors
What are the steps to activate intracellular hormone receptors? 1.Steroid & Thyroid hormones pass through membrane barrier 2.hormone binds to & activates recptor usually in the nucleus 3.Receptor alters gene expression 4.New mRNA is formed 5.RNA directs sythesis of new protein
What is amplification? One receptor activates many G-proteins and the effects are multiplied many fold.
What are permissive effects? When a previous exposure enhances the response of a target cell.
What is a synergistice effect? When two or more hormones act together and aid each other to fully express the effect.
What is an antagonistic effect? One hormones opposes the actions of another
What controls hormonal secretions? NS, Chemical changes in blood, pos. & neg. feedback and other hormones
Created by: Tri 2



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