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20- Respiratory

Chapter 20- Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology

contamination of the respiratory system is prevented by a series of filtration mechanisms that constitute what? respiratory defense system
What kind of epithelium lines the nasal cavity, the superior portion of the pharynx, the trachea, bronchi, and large bronchioles? pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
The beating of cilia sweeps mucus and any trapped debris or microorganisms toward where? pharynx
The flow of mucus from the respiratory system to the pharynx is described as what? mucus escalator
the lamina propria is the underlying layer of which type of tissue that supports the respiratory epithelium? areolar tissue
What type of cells divide to replace damaged or aged cells in the respiratory epithelium? stem cells
What is the most common lethal inherited disease among Caucasians of Northern European descent? Cystic fibrosis
Why is cystic fibrosis the most common lethal inherited disease? It causes abnormally thick and sticky mucus in the conducting portions of the respiratory tract and bacteria may colonize the stagnant mucus.
What type of epithelium lines the inferior portions of the pharynx? stratified squamous epithelium
In the finer bronchioles, the epithelium becomes what kind of epithelium? cuboidal
The gas exchange surfaces consist of what type of epithelium? simple squamous epithelium
the passageways that carry air to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs make up what? the respiratory tract
what begins at the entrance to the nasal cavity and extends to fine passageways? conducting portion
what includes the most delicate bronchioles and the alveoli where gas exchange occurs between air and blood? respiratory portion
what filters, warms, and humidifies incoming air? upper respiratory tract
what conducts air to and from the gas exchange surfaces? lower respiratory tract
What part of the nose is supported by the anterior portion of the nasal septum? bridge
What is the bridge of the nose formed of? hyaline cartilage
what are the small, elastic pieces that extend laterally from the bridge of the nose and keep the external nares open? nasal cartilages
Air normally enters through paired _____ which open into the nasal cavity. external nares
to pass from the external nares to the internal nares, air flows between adjacent _____, through the superior, middle, and inferior meatuses. conchae
What does meatus mean? a passage
What is formed by the fusion of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and the vomer? nasal septum
What divides the nasal cavity into left and right portions? nasal septum
What bones form the lateral and superior walls of the nasal cavity contain paranasal sinuses? maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid
Where are mucous secretions produced to keep the surfaces of the nasal cavity moist and clean? paranasal sinuses
what is a chamber shared by the digestive and respiratory systems? pharynx
What is the superior portion of the pharynx that is located between the soft palate and the internal nares? nasopharynx
What extends between the soft palate and the base of teh tongue at the level of the hyoid bone? oropharynx
At the boundary between the nasopharynx and the oropharynx, the epithelium changes from _____ to ______. pseudostratified columnar; stratified squamous
What includes the portion of the pharynx between the hyoid bone and the entrance to the larynx and esophagus? laryngopharynx
What type of epithelium is the laryngopharynx lined with? stratified squamous
What conducts air toward the lungs? trachea
What is the trachea also known as? windpipe
The nasal cavity opens into the nasopharynx through a connection known as the what? internal nares
What is the space contained within the flexible tissues of the nose? nasal vestibule
What forms the floor of the nasal cavity and separates it form the oral cavity? hard palate
What extends posterior to the hard palate? soft palate
inhaled air leaves the pharynx and enters the larynx through a narrow opening called what? glottis
What is a cartilagenous structure that surrounds and protects the glottis? larynx
What is also known as the voice box? larynx
What contains an extensive network of large and highly expandable veins that can release heat like a radiator? lamina propria
what consists of three large unpaired cartilages and three small paired cartilages? larynx
What are the large unpaired cartilages of the larynx? epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage
What projects superior to the glottis and forms a lid over it to prevent the entry of liquids and solid food into the respiratory tract? epiglottis
What forms most of the anterior and lateral walls of the larynx? thyroid cartilage
What is the prominent anterior surface of the thyroid cartilage called? laryngeal prominence
What has a greatly expanded posterior portion that provides support to the trachea? cricoid cartilage
What ligaments extend between the thyroid cartilage and the arytenoid cartilages? vestibualar and vocal
What are long, curved, and lite within folds of tissue that extend between the lateral surface of each arytenoid cartilage and the epiglottis? cuneiform cartilage
What articulates with the arytenoid cartilages? corniculate cartilage
What cartilages function in the opening and closing of the glottis and the production of sound? corniculate and arytenoid
What are small, paired, and articulate with the superior surface of the cricoid cartilage? arytenoid cartilage
The opening or closing of the glottis involves what kind of movement of the arytenoid cartilages? rotational
The opening or closing of the glottis involves rotational movements of what? arytenoid cartilage
When the glottis is open, air passing through it vibrates what? vocal folds
What are tissue folds that contain elastic vocal ligaments? vocal folds
The vibration of the vocal folds produces sound waves, and the pitch of the sound produced depends on what? diameter, length, and tension in the vocal folds
The vocal folds lie inferior to what? vestibular folds
Vocal folds are also known as what? vocal cords
Vestibular ligaments lie within what? vestibular folds
What helps prevent foreign objects from entering the glottis and contacting the more delicate vocal folds? vestibular folds
Sound production at the larynx is called what? phonation
The modification of sound by structures such as the tongue, teeth, and lips is called what? articulation
what is a tough, flexible tube with a diameter of about 2.5 cm? trachea
Within the mediastinum, the trachea branches to form what? right and left primary bronchi
What connects the ends of each C-shaped tracheal cartilage? elastic ligament and trachealis muscle
What kind of stimulation relaxes the trachea muscle? sympathetic
The trachea contains how many tracheal cartilages? 15-20
What stiffens the tracheal walls and protects the airway, and also prevent its collapse or over expansion as pressures change within the respiratory system? tracheal cartilages
Which primary bronchus is larger? right
Why can the posterior tracheal wall easily distort when large masses of food pass along the esophagus? the tracheal cartilages are incomplete posteriorly
List the air conduction passageways in the lower respiratory tract in order trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, pulmonary lobule, alveolus
What is a meshwork of dense connective tissue that fixes the positions of the bronchi, major nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics? root of the lung
The walls of what lack cartilages but contain relatively thick layers of ____. bronchioles; smooth muscle
Smooth muscle tone has a significant effect on ______ and the resistance to ______. bronchial diameter; airflow
Sympathetic activation leads to what? bronchodilation
What kind of activation leads to bronchoconstriction? parasympathetic
Extreme bronchoconstriction may occur during allergic reactions such as what? asthma
Each tertiary bronchus ultimately supplies air to a single what? bronchopulmonary segment
What is a specific region of one lung? bronchopulmonary segment
The branching pattern of bronchi and bronchioles is often called what? bronchial tree
What is a groove that allows passage of the primary bronchi, pulmonary vessels, nerves, and lymphatics? hilum
The conducting and respiratory portions of the respiratory tract are continuous and end in air sacs called what? alveoli
Each alveolus is surrounded by an extended capillary network that receives blood from a branch of a _______ and discharges blood into a tributary of a _______. pulmonary artery; pulmonary vein
_____ of elastic fibers during exhalation reduces the size of the alveoli and helps push air out of the lungs recoil
The alveolar epithelium is primarily what kind of epithelium? simple squamous
Alveolar capillaries ____ when oxygen levels are high, and ____ when oxygen levels are low. dilate; constrict
______ are scattered among squamous cells Type II pneumocytes
What cells produce surfactant? Type II pneumocytes
What is an oily secretion containing a mixture of phospholipids and proteins that forms a superficial coating over a thin layer of water? surfactant
What kind of squamous epithelial cells are unusually thin and delicate? Type I pneumocytes
In which type of cell are the sites of gas diffusion? Type I pneumocytes
What roams and patrols the epithelial surface of Type I pneumocytes? Alveolar macrophages
Gas exchange occurs across what at each alveolus? respiratory membrane
what includes all the processes involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body's interstitial fluids and the external environment? external respiration
what occurs across the respiratory membrane between alveoli and capillaries, and across capillary walls between blood and other tissues? gas diffusion
what is the absorption of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide by tissue cells? internal respiration.
what involves the physical movement of air into and out of the lungs? pulmonary ventilation
breathing is also known as what? pulmonary ventilation
what is the primary function of pulmonary ventilation? to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation
what is the movement of air into and out of the alveoli? alveolar ventilation
alveolar ventilation prevents the buildup of what in the alveoli? carbon dioxide
which law states that pressure is inversely proportional to volume? boyle's law
when the diaphragm contracts, it tenses and moves in which direction? inferiorly
at the start of a breath, how are the pressures inside and outside the thoracic cavity related? they are identical
an injury allowing air into the pleural cavity breaks the bond between the parietal and visceral pleura causing the lung to collapse. What is the term used to describe this? atelectasis
the direction of airflow is determined by the difference between atmospheric pressure and what? intrapulmonary pressure
what is the pressure inside the respiratory tract called? intrapulmonary pressure
in which direction does positive intrapulmonary pressures take air? out of the lungs
in which direction does negative intrapulmonary pressure take air? into the lungs
what is the amount of air moved into the lungs during inhalation and out of the lungs during exhalation? tidal volume
what is the measure of normal atmospheric pressure in mm Hg? 760 mm Hg
What is the measure of normal atmospheric pressure at sea level in psi? 15 psi
What are the primary muscles involved in inhalation? diaphragm and the external intercostals
the contraction of which muscles assists the external intercostal muscles in elevating the ribs? accessory muscles
contraction of which muscles elevates the ribs? external intercostals
the contraction of which group of muscles contributes to roughly 25% to the volume of air in the lungs at rest? primary inspiratory muscles
contraction of what muscle flattens the floor of the thoracic cavity? diaphragm
What is responsible for roughly 75% of the air movement in normal breathing at rest? contraction of the diaphragm
What two muscles depress the ribs and reduce the width and depth of the thoracic cavity? internal intercostals and transversus thoracis muscles
What is the amount of air that you can breathe in over and above the tidal volume? inspiratory reserve volume
what is the amount of air you move into or out of your lungs during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions? tidal volume
what is the amount of air that you can voluntarily expel after you have completed a normal, quiet respiratory cycle? expiratory reserve volume
what is the amount of air that would remain in your lungs if they were allowed to collapse? minimal volume
What is the range of minimal volume? 30-120 mL
what is the term used to describe the total volume of your lungs? total lung capacity
what is term used to describe the amount of air that remains in your lungs even after a maximal exhalation? residual volume
what is the term used to describe the amount of air remaining in your lungs after you have completed a quiet respiratory cycle? functional residual capacity
what is the term used to describe the maximum amount of air that you can move into or out of your lungs in a single respiratory cycle? vital capacity
what is the term used to describe the amount of air that you can draw into your lungs after you have completed a quiet respiratory cycle? inspiratory capacity
What is the total lung capacity averages for males and females? 6000; 4200
The FRC is the sum of what? expiratory reserve and residual volume
The total lung capacity is calculated by adding what? vital capacity and residual volume
The vital capacity is calculated by adding what? expiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and inspiratory reserve volume
The inspiratory capacity is calculated by adding what? tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume
the respiratory system adjusts what over a broad range to meet the oxygen demands of the body? pulmonary ventilation
when you are exercising at peak levels, the amount of air moving into and out of the respiratory tract can be ___ times the amount moved at rest. 50
what is the term used for the number of breaths you take each minute? respiratory rate
the normal respiratory rate of a resting adult ranges from __ to __ each minute. 12; 18
What is the ratio of normal adults breaths per heartbeat? 1:4
children breathe at a rate of about __ to __ breaths per minute. 18-20
What value is represented by multiplying the respiratory rate by the tidal volume? respiratory minute volume
What is the equation used to calculate respiratory minute volume? respiratory rate times tidal volume
what is the term used for the amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute? alveolar ventilation
why is the alveolar ventilation less than the respiratory minute volume? some of the air never reaches the alveoli, but remains in the conducting portion of the lungs
what is the anatomic dead space? the conducting passageways that keeps air from reaching the alveoli
why is the composition of the gas arriving in the alveoli significantly different from that of the surrounding atmosphere? inhaled air always mixed with used air in the conducting passageways on its way to the exchange surfaces
the air in the alveoli contains less _____ and more _____ than does atmospheric air. oxygen; carbon dioxide
whenever the demand for oxygen increases, ____ and _____ must be increased. tidal volume; respiratory rate
what is the pressure contributed by a single gas in a mixture of gases? partial pressure
all the partial pressures added together equal the total pressure exerted by the gas mixture is known as what? dalton's law
at a given temperature, the amount of a particular gas in solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas is known as what? henry's law
how is each oxygen molecule entering peripheral tissues balanced? by an oxygen molecule absorbed at the alveoli, and the absorbed oxygen molecule will be replaced in the next respiratory cycle
if tissue oxygen demand accelerates, what must happen? the respiratory rate and tidal volume must increase
oxygen molecules are bound specifically to what? iron ions in the center of heme units
what does a hemoglobin molecule consist of? four globular protein subunits
each hemoglobin molecule can reversibly bind up to four molecules of oxygen, forming what? oxyhemoglobin
the percentage of heme units containing bound oxygen at any given moment is called what? hemoglobin saturation
what shows the saturation of hemoglobin at different partial pressures of oxygen? oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve
why does blood pH have a direct effect on the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve? the shape of hemoglobin molecules changes as the number of bound oxygen molecules increases and these changes affect its affinity for oxygen
what is the effect that describes how blood pH affects the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation? bohr effect
hemoglobin releases ____ oxygen if the pH increases. less
hemoglobin releases ____ oxygen if the pH decreases. more
The ____ the temperature, the more readily hemoglobin gives up its oxygen reserves. higher
RBCs do not contain ____. mitochondria
RBSs generate ATP through ____. glycolysis
The metabolic pathways involved in glycolysis generate the compound ______. 2,3-biphosphoglycerate
for any partial pressure of oxygen, the higher the concentration of BPG, the ___ oxygen will be released by the Hb molecules. more
BPG production _____ as RBCs age. decreases
When BPG levels get too low, what happens? hemoglobin becomes firmly bound to the available oxygen.
carbon dioxide is generated by what? aerobic metabolism in peripheral tissues
After entering the bloodstream, what happens to the CO2 molecules? 1. converted to carbonic acid. 2. bound to the protein in Hb. 3. dissolves in plasma
When 23% of CO2 is bound to Hb, what happens? The CO2 is reversibly bound to amino groups, resulting in carbaminohemoglobin.
The 70% of CO2 is converted to carbonic acid through what? carbonic anhydrase
Carbonic acid molecules dissociate into what? hydrogen ion and a bicarbonate ion
most of the hydrogen ions bind to hemoglobin molecules, forming what? HbH+, which acts as a buffer.
When the bicarbonate ions are ready to leave the RBC, what happens? They exchange with a chloride ion so Cl- goes into the RBC and bicarb goes into the plasma.
What is the exchange of bicarb and chloride ions from the RBC called? Chloride shift
What happens to every oxygen molecule entering peripheral tissue? It is balanced by an oxygen molecule absorbed at the alveoli.
The equilibrium between oxygen absorption and oxygen use is disturbed when what happens? tissue oxygen demand increases
If the respiratory rate and tidal volume do not increase, the alveolar PO2 will _____. steadily decline.
what is an indication of the lungs expandability? compliance
what is caused by inadequate surfactant production? respiratory distress syndrome
what does respiratory distress syndrome lead to ? alveolar collapse on exhalation.
what is an indication of how much force is required to inflate or deflate the lungs? resistance
what is a general term indicating a progressive disorder of the airways that restricts airflow and reduces alveolar ventilation? COPD
What does COPD stand for? chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
what is a condition characterized by conducting passageways that are extremely sensitive to irritation? asthma
in asthma, the airways respond to irritation by constricting what specifically? smooth muscles along the bronchial tree.
what is a long-term inflammation and swelling of the bronchial lining? chronic bronchitis
the combination of widespread edema and bluish discoloration has led to what descriptive term? blue bloaters
what causes the bluish discoloration is chronic bronchitis patients? low blood oxygen levels
what is a chronic, progressive condition characterized by shortness of breath and an inability to tolerate physical exertion? emphysema
what is the underlying problem for emphysema patients? destruction of alveolar surfaces and inadequate surface area of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
what is the term used to describe the pink discoloration for patients with emphysema? pink puffers
The most basic level of respiratory control involves what specifically? pacemaker cells in the MO
what sets the pace of respiration by adjusting the activities of pacemaker cells and coordinating the activities of additional respiratory muscles? respiratory rhythmicity centers
each respiratory rhythmicity center can be divided into what? dorsal respiratory group and ventral respiratory group
what contains neurons that control lower motor neurons that innervate the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm? inspiratory center of the DRG
what center functions in every respiratory cycle? inspiratory center of the DRG
what has inspiratory and expiratory centers that function only when ventilation demands it? VRG- Ventral respiratory group
what are paired nuclei that adjust the output of the respiratory rhythmicity centers? apneustic and pneumotaxic
what inhibits the apneustic centers and promotes passive or active exhalation? pneumotaxic center
the apneustic centers promote what specifically? inhalation by stimulating the DRG.
During forced breathing, the apneustic centers adjust the degree of stimulation in response to sensory information from what? N X (vagus nerve)
What centers can alter the activity of the pneumotaxic centers? cerebral cortex, limbic system, and hypothalamus
Where does the brain have to be damaged so that normal respiratory cycles can continue? superior to the pons.
what are stereotyped, automatic responses called? respiratory reflexes
what is perfusion coupling? This occurs when the capillaries that exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen with the alveoli are no longer together. Air bypasses the alveoli.
what is valsalsa? pushing air with the diaphragm. (child birth, defecation, weight lifting)
define eupnea quiet breathing
opera singers breathe using which level? diaphragmatic breathing
shallow breathing, denotes disease, impedence, arthritis- costal breathing
cheyene-stokes breathing usually seen in smokers. breathe, pause, breathe.
what reflex limits thoracic inflation/over expansion prevention? herring-brewer reflex
under normal conditions, what is the most important factor stimulating chemoreceptors and influencing respiratory activity? partial pressure of CO2
how much of a rise in partial pressure of CO2 causes the respiratory rate to double, even if the partial pressure of O2 remains completely normal? 10%
a drop in arterial partial pressure of O2 has how much of an effect on the respiratory centers? little
when the arterial partial pressure drops below what is there an effect on the respiratory centers? 60 mm Hg
an increase in the arterial blood partial pressure of CO2 constitutes what? hypercapnia
the most common cause of hypercapnia is what? hypoventilation
what is hypoventilation? when respiratory activity is insufficient to meet the demands for tissue oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal
what occurs when the rate and depth of respiration exceed the demands for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal? hyperventilation
hyperventilation gradually leads to what? hypocapnia
What must occur to cause shallow water blackout? When snorkelers hyperventilate to extend their time underwater, the partial pressure of CO2 gets really low. PCO2 stimulates respiratory activity, and the brain becomes starved of oxygen.
baroreceptors in the carotid and aortic sinuses are monitored by sensory nerves within what? the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves
what are monitored by sensory nerves in the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves? baroreceptors in the carotid and aortic sinuses
When arterial blood pressure falls below its normal range, what happens to the respiratory minute volume? it increases due to stimulation of the respiratory centers
what causes the respiratory minute volume to decrease? Arterial blood pressure rising above normal levels, inhibiting the respiratory centers
inflation and deflation reflexes are activated by what? stretch receptors in the lungs during forced breathing.
the sensory information of inflation and deflation is distributed to where? the apneustic centers and the VRG
what prevents overexpansion of the lungs during forced breathing? inflation reflex
what inhibits the expiratory centers and stimulates the inspiratory centers when the lungs are deflating? deflation reflex
stretch receptors that stimulate lung expansion are located where? in the smooth muscle around bronchioles
stretch receptors that are stimulated as elastic fibers recoil are located where? in the alveolar walls
what includes sneezing and coughing? protective reflexes
what is triggered by an irritation of the nasal cavity wall? sneezing
what is triggered by an irritation of the larynx, trachea, or bronchi? coughing
what is a period in which respiration is suspended? apnea
air leaving the larynx can travel at what speed? 99 mph
as elastic tissue deteriorates throughout the body, what happens? vital capacity decreases
as arthritic changes stiffen rib articulations, what happens? compliance and respiratory minute volume is reduced
what form of COPD is normal in individuals over age 50? emphysema
what accounts for 12.6% of new cancer cases in both men and women? lung cancers
what is an irritant, and its chemicals contain several carcinogens? cigarette smoke
the normal respiratory epithelium consists of what kind of epithelium with an abundance of mucus cells that helps clean inhaled air? pseudostratified ciliated columnar
define dysplasia damaged cells.
what happens in dysplasia? the cells are damaged, and the cilia of respiratory epithelial cells are damaged and paralyzed by exposure to cigarette smoke.
what happens in metaplasia? a tissue changes its structure in response to injury or chemical stress. The respiratory surface converts to stratified that may protect connective tissue, but does nothing for the respiratory tract.
In ____, the abnormal cells form a cancerous tumor, or ____. neoplasia; neoplasm
in ____, the most dangerous stage of neoplasia, the cells become malignant and spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body. anaplasia
Created by: 1270977350