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What is Mutation? ANY alteration in the BASE SEQUENCE
Where do Mutations most often occur? during DNA Replication
How do Mutations happen? faulty DNA Replication --> faulty Transcription --> altered mRNA --> altered Translation --> different "nonsense" Protein
What are the possible effects of Mutations? None, Adverse, Positive
What are the 2 subcategories of Mutations? 1. Chromosome Mutations; 2. Gene Mutations
What is Chromosome Mutation? MISSING or EXTRA portions of Chromosomes
What are the subtypes of Gene Mutations? Substitutions, Insertions, Deletions
What are the 2 types of causes of Mutations? Spontaneous or Environmental: Physical, Chemical, Biological
What are some examples of Chemical, Physical, and Biological Mutagens? Chemical: lead, mercury, aspestos, cigarettes; Physical: x-rays, radon, sun; Biological: virus, STDs
What are the 2 subcategories of Mutations based upon location? Somatic, Sexual
What is a Somatic Mutation? affecting GENERAL Body Cells
What are the Genes which control Mitosis? Tumor-Supressor Genes, Proto-Oncogenes
What are Tumor-Supressor Genes? code for Proteins which RESTRAIN Mitosis
What are Proto-Oncogenes? code for Protein GROWTH FACTORS which STIMULATE Mitosis
What causes Cancerous Tumors? damage to BOTH Tumor-Supressor and Proto-Oncogenes
What are 2 characteristics of Somatic Mutations? NOT PASSED to next generation, may damage Genes which control Mitosis - COMMON
What are the subtypes of Gene Mutations? Substitutions, Insertions, Deletions
How do Sexual Mutations affect people? PASSED to offspring --> Birth Defects - RARE
What do Sexual Mutations affect? Sperm, Ova
Which Gene controls the RATE of Mitosis? RATE of Mitosis determined by 2 large sets of Genes - Tumor-Supressing & Proto-Onco
Created by: Kristel