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Graphics Edexcel


What is tetrapak made of? From outside in-Polyethylene, Polyethylene, Aluminium foil, polyethylene, paperboard, polyethylene
Environmental issues with paper and board Toxic pollution, air pollution, water and energy consumption, solid waste, deforestation
Which metal is ferrous out of steel, aluminium and tin? Steel
What are the uses of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)? Fizzy drink bottles, packaging for highly flavoured food, microwaveable food trays
What are the uses of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)? Packaging for toiletries, pharmaceutical products, food and confectionery, water and fruit juices
What are the uses of polypropylene (PP)? Yoghurt and margarine pots, sweet and snack wrappers
What are the uses of polystyrene (PS)? Rigid polystyrene: food packaging such as yoghurt pots, CD jewel cases Expanded polystyrene: egg cartons, fruit, vegetable and meat trays, cups etc.; packaging for electrical and fragile goods
Are jelutong and balsa hardwoods or softwoods? They are hardwoods, however, they can be used for modelling
What are the uses of carbon fibre? Sports equipment such as tennis racquets and fishing rods, bicycle frames and wheels, aircraft and vehicle components
What are the uses of medium density fibreboard (MDF)? Flat-pack furniture, general joinery work, moulds for forming processes
What are the benefits of LCD displays? Thinner, so casing can be slimmer and less material is used Have a higher resolution so better picture quality Uses much less energy, saving both energy and costs Weigh less than cathode ray tubes (CRTs) so they are more portable
How does e-paper work? The black beads are repelled by negative bottom electrodes The white beads are repelled by positive bottom electrodes The beads at the top form the image on the display Gray can be created by having one positive and one negative electrode
What are the advantages of e-paper? There is no backlighting so it is not hard on the human eye, it reflects light like normal paper It is easier to read at an angle than flat screen monitors Lightweight Durable Highly flexible (but not as flexible as paper)
What is the foil backing, prescription drug reservoir, membrane and adhesive used for in transdermal prescription drug patches? Foil backing-protects patch from outer environment Drug reservoir-Holds a precise amount of the drug Membrane-Permeable layer, controls release of drug Adhesive-Bonds components of patch together as wells as sticking patch to surface of skin
Benefits of transdermal patches as an alternative to injections Controlled release of medication into patient over a period Delivers medication painlessly, simply absorbed by skin 'Clean' technology, there are no dangerous needles to dispose of
What is polymorph? A plastic which at room temperature is as strong as a normal polymer but at 60 degrees it becomes soft and mouldable
What is polymorph used for? One-off moulding for hand-held devices to test ergonomics, vacuum-forming moulds and impression moulds that can produce several copies of the same component
How does a thermochromic liquid crystal thermometer work? Screen-printed layer of conductive ink in contact with forehead, layer of normal ink with temperature colour bars, finally a thermochromic layer that is black when cool Turns translucent when it heats up revealing gauge colour bars
What are liquid crystals? Organic, carbon-based compounds that can show both liquid and solid crystal characteristics When voltage is applied and light falls on it, it appears to go dark
What are the uses of LCD displays? Digital clocks, wristwatches, laptops, televisions, mobile phones
How do full colour LCD displays work? They have pixels which contain three sub-pixels with red, green or blue filters By varying the voltage, the intensity of each sub-pixel can create over 256 different colours
What is saddle-wire stitching? Binding by stapling through the fold
What is saddle-wire stitching used for? Brochures, weekly magazines, comics
What are the advantages of saddle-wire stitching? Ideal for signature-feed processes (folded pages) Printed materials can be laid flat to read Relatively inexpensive when commercially produced
What are the disadvantages of saddle-wire stitching? Lower-quality visual appearance Not durable as centre pages can easily fall apart
What is spiral and comb binding? Binding by punching holes along the spine and inserting a spiralling steel or plastic band through the holes
What is spiral and comb binding used for? Business reports or documents
What are the advantages of spiral and comb binding? Relatively inexpensive when produced commercially Ideal for binding multiples of single sheets of paper without folds Fairly good quality visual appearance Printed materials can be laid flat to read
What are the disadvantages of spiral and comb binding? Not durable as document can easily fall apart or tear down perforations
What is perfect binding? Binding by sticking pages to cover with a flexible adhesive
What is perfect binding used for? Paperback books, glossy monthly magazines, catalogues
What are the advantages of perfect binding? Better presentation and visual appeal rather than staples Better quality Glued spine provides longevity for a monthly magazine
What are the disadvantages of perfect binding? Expensive commercial process
What is hard-bound or case-bound? Binding by sewing and gluing pages
What is hard-bound or case-bound used for? Hardback books, quality presentations such as school yearbooks
What are the advantages of hard-bound or case-bound? Stiff board used on the cover to protect the pages High quality, professional binding method Extremely durable
What are the disadvantages of hard-bound or case-bound? Very expensive commercial process
What is a pencil used for? Drawing and sketching Hard pencils (H to 9H) - technical drawing (they can retain a fine point) Soft pencils (9B to HB) - sketching and shading (lead is richer and darker)
What is a set square used for? 45 degree set square - oblique drawings and cross-hatching of sectional drawings 30 degree set square - isometric drawings 60 degree set square - planometric/axonometric drawings
What is a compass used for Drawing circles and arcs and marking measurements Spring-bow compasses for drawing small-diameter circles Pencil compasses for larger-diameter circles
What is a ruler used for? A straight edge for drawing lines, with a scale (mm) for measuring
What is a circle/ellipse template used for? Circle template - quick and effective way of drawing smaller diameter circles without the need for a compass Ellipse template - enables circles to be drawn in isometric view without the need for complex technical constructions
What are flexicurves/french curves used for? French curves - can repeat a particular curve without having to technically construct it again Flexicurve - a plastic strip with a lead core that can be bent into any desired curve and will retain that shape
What is a drawing board used for? Flat surface to attach paper securely to with a parallel motion (sliding rule) that aids technical drawing
What are the uses of one-off production? Prototype and architectural models, shop signage, vinyl stickers for commercial vehicles
What are the advantages of one-off production? Made to exact personal specifications High-quality materials used Highly skilled craftsperson ensures high-quality product
What are the disadvantages of one-off production? Usually an expensive final product Usually labour-intensive and a slow process
What are the uses of batch production? Commercially printed materials, such as magazines and newspapers
What are the advantages of batch production? Flexibility in adapting production to another product Fast response to market trends Identical batches of products produced Efficient manufacturing systems can be employed Good economies of scale in bulk-buying of materials Lower unit costs
What are the disadvantages of batch production? Poor production planning can result in large quantities of products having to be stored, incurring storage costs Frequent changes in production can cause costly re-tooling, which is reflected in the retail price
What are the uses of mass production? Electronic products such as mobile phones and games consoles, graphic products such as clothes labels, tickets, packaging
What are the advantages of mass production? Highly automated and efficient Specialisation of workforce to specific tasks Rigourous quality control ensures identical goods Excellent economies of scale in bulk-buying materials Quick recovery of set-up costs Low unit costs Low labour costs
What are the disadvantages of mass production? Low skilled workforce-low wages, repetitive tasks, job dissatisfaction Ethical concerns of manufacturing in developing countries High initial set up costs due to expensive machinery and tooling Inflexible - cannot respond quickly to market trends
What is a bandsaw and what is it used for? Heavy-duty electric saw for cutting most sheet materials
What is a vibrosaw and what is it used for? Bench-mounted electric saw for cutting most sheet materials
What is a hot wire cutter and what is it used for? A taut, heated metal wire that cuts through Styrofoam (TM) and expanded polystrene
What is a coping saw and what is it used for? Saw for cutting curves out of sheet materials including thin wood and acrylic
What is a pillar drill and what is it used for? Bench-mounted electric drill for drilling holes in most materials
What is a surform used for? Roughly shaping soft materials, e.g. laminated MDF block models
What is a rasp used for? Shaping soft materials
What is a file used for? Creating a smooth finish on acrylics and MDF
What is glasspaper used for? Making a smooth surface finish on woods and Styrofoam (TM)
What is wet and dry paper used for? Making a smooth surface finish on acrylic and MDF
What is sanding sealer used for? Sealing the porous surface of MDF prior to painting
What is spray paint used for? Applying a professional-looking finish to MDF once sealed
What are the two rapid prototyping processes commonly used by manufacturing industries? Stereolithography (SLA) and 3D printing (3DP)
How does stereolithography work? CAD drawing is sliced into very thin layers (0.125-0.75mm) Laser draws first layer on resin Wiper moves across to create even surface Platform moves down with solidified layer Next layer drawn When all done, completed part is withdrawn from resin vat
How does 3D printing work? Powdered plastic adheres to heated roller Beam of light fuses powder to create image Brushes remove unfused powder Image rolled onto plate which moves down as more layers added When done, bottom plate moves up Heat and pressure fuse layers together
What are the advantages of rapid prototyping? Fast entry to market-reduction in lead time Reduced development time-saves money More complex shapes accurately from CAD Accurate testing-materials more like final product Efficient-less waste due to building up rather than taking away materials
What materials is epoxy resin used on? Most materials including expanded polystyrene (EPS)
What materials is polystyrene cement used on? Polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) for vacuum forming Should not be used on expanded polystyrene (EPS) as it dissolves
What materials is Tensol(R) cement used on? Acrylic
What materials is polyvinyl acetate (PVA) used on? Woods and porous materials such as Styrofoam(TM)
What are the advantages of epoxy resin? High-performance giving high-strength bonds Hardens immediately Versatile-can be flexible, rigid, transparent, opaque, coloured, rapid, slow setting Excellent heat and chemical resistance
What are the advantages of polystyrene cement? Strong bond-melts surface of pieces to be joined causing them to weld together Able to used a brush to apply (water-like consistency) and absorbed into joint by capillary action
What are the advantages of Tensol(R) cement? Produces high-strength bonds to acrylic sheet Clear adhesive-if acrylic glued correctly you will not see the join
What are the advantages of polyvinyl acetate (PVA)? Gives a strong joint Dries clear Relatively inexpensive
What are the disadvantages of epoxy resin? Reaches full strength after a few days Expensive Often requires manual mixing of resin and hardener, which can be messy
What are the disadvantages of polystyrene cement? Relatively expensive Solvent-based so contains harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
What are the disadvantages of Tensol(R) cement? Needs to be clamped together for 24 hours to give a permanent joint Solvent-based so contains harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
What are the disadvantages of polyvinyl acetate (PVA)? Surfaces need to be securely clamped together for long periods for PVA to harden Most brands not waterproof
What are the uses of photocopying? General applications such as business documents, handouts, posters
What are the uses of offset lithography? Business stationary, brochures, posters, magazines, newspapers
What are the uses of flexography? Packaging, less expensive magazines, paperbacks, newspapers
What are the uses of gravure printing? High-quality art and photographic books, postage stamps, packaging, expensive magazines
What are the uses of screen-printing? T-shirts, posters, plastic and metal signage, point-of-sale displays, promotional items such as pens, glasses and mugs
What are the advantages of photocopying? Widely available Good colour reproduction Automatic collation and stapling of documents if required Easy printing of double-sided pages Relatively low cost per copy for small batches (no set-up costs) High printing speeds
What are the advantages of offset lithography? Good reproduction quality Inexpensive printing process Can print on a wide range of papers High printing speeds Widely available
What are the advantages of flexography? High-speed printing process Fast-drying inks Relatively inexpensive to set up Can print on same presses as letterpress
What are the advantages of gravure printing? Consistent colour reproduction High-speed printing process Widest printing presses Ink dries on evaporation Variety of in-line finishing operations available Good results on lower-quality paper
What are the advantages of screen-printing? Stencils easy to produce using photo-emulsion technique Versatile-can print on virtually any surface Economical for short, hand-produced runs Fully automatic methods capable of producing large volumes
What are the disadvantages of photocopying? Not cost-effective for long print runs Poor reproduction quality when toner is running low Image fades over time
What are the disadvantages of offset lithography? Colour variation due to water/ink mixture Paper can stretch due to dampening Set-up costs make it uneconomic on short runs Can only be used on flat materials Requires a good-quality surface
What are the disadvantages of flexography? Difficult to reproduce fine detail Colour may not be consistent Set-up costs high so would rarely be used on print runs below 500,000
What are the disadvantages of gravure printing? High cost of engraved printing plates and cylinders Only efficient for long print runs Image printed as dots which are visible to the naked eye Very expensive set-up costs so only used on large print runs
What are the disadvantages of screen-printing? Generally difficult to achieve fine detail Print requires long drying times
Created by: Marge-Homer