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Enzymes

Influences on

QuestionAnswer
What influences Enzyme Action? anything that can change the SHAPE or ELECTRIC CHARGE of an Enzyme can alter its activity
What are some Modifiers of Enzyme Action? Heat, pH
How can heat modify an Enzymes Actions? 1. Activation Energy; 2. Denature Enzyme 3-D configuration
How can pH modify an Enzymes Actions? may change Electrical Charge of an Enzyme
What are Cofactors? typically Metals NECESSARY to complete enzyme's Active Site
What are some examples of Cofactors? Mg++, Fe++, Cu++
Will an enzyme work if its Cofactor is not present? No
What are Coenzymes? TRANSFER Atoms to/from a Substrate
What are Coenzymes made of? Organic NON-Protein molecule -or- Water Soluble Vitamins ( B=Complex, C)
Name 4 influences on Ezyme Action? 1. Modifiers 2. Cofactors 3. Coenzymes 4. Inhibitors
What are the types of Inhibitors? Competitive, NON-Competitive
What are 3 characterisitcs of Competitive Inhibitors? 1. Chemically RESEMBLES Substrate (similar SHAPE); 2. OCCUPIES Active Site of a SPECIFIC Enzyme; 3. usually IRREVERSIBLE
Why are Inhibitors produced? Cells produce Inhibitors - PREVENT Overproduction of certain products - Control Metabolism
What are 2 characteristics of NON-Competitive Inhibitors? 1. NO Chemical Similarity to Substrate; 2. mey be Reversible or Irreversible; 3
What is Feedback Inhibition? REVERSIBLE:NON-Competitive Inhibitor - attaches to Regulatory Site = TEMPORARILY altering Enzyme shape
When are NON-Competitive Inhbitors Irreversible? attachment to AA subgroups of the Enzyme PERMANENTLY Denaturing the Enzyme - HEAVY METALS
What are 2 examples of Irreversible NON-Competitive Inhibitors? Mercury, Lead
What are the 5 Classes of Enzymes? 1. Hydrolases; 2. Sythases; 3. Dehydrogenases; 4. Phosphatases; 5. Kinases
What are 3 examples of Hydrolases? 1. Pepsin 2. Amylase 3. Lipase
What is the function of Hydrolase Enzymes? breakdown substances tih the ADDITION of WATER Molecules
How do Hydrolases breakdown substances? Proteins --> Polypeptides; Carbohydrates --> Simple Sugars; Fats --> Fatty Acids + Glycerol
What is the function of Synthetases? REMOVE Water to JOIN Molecules together
What is the function of Dehydrogenases? REMOVES Electrons and H+
What is the function of Phosphatases? REMOVES Phosphate Groups
What is the function of Kinases? ADDS Phosphate Groups
Created by: Kristel