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CIT165 Chapter 8 HD

CIT165 Chapter 8 Support HD Study Stack

QuestionAnswer
80-conductor IDE cable An IDE cable that has 40 pins but uses 80 wires, 40 of which are ground wires designed to reduce crosstalk on the cable.
active partition The one bootable partition.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) A nonprofit organization dedicated to creating trade and communications standards.
ATAPI (Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface) An interface standard, part of the IDE/ATA standards, that allows tape drives, CD-ROM drives, and other drives to be treated like an IDE hard drive by the system.
autodetection A feature of system BIOS and hard drives that automatically identifies and configures a new drive in CMOS setup.
basic disk A single hard drive that works independently of other hard drives.
block mode A method of data transfer between hard drive and memory that allows multiple data transfers on a single software interrupt.
boot record The first sector of a floppy disk or logical drive in a partition; it contains information about the disk or logical drive. On a hard drive, if the boot record is in the active partition, then it is used to boot the OS. Also called boot sector.
boot sector Another term for a boot record.
cluster One or more sectors that constitute the smallest unit of space on a disk for storing data (also referred to as a file allocation unit). Files are written to a disk as groups of whole clusters.
DMA (direct memory access) transfer mode A transfer mode used by devices, including the hard drive, to transfer data to memory without involving the CPU.
drive image The duplication of everything written to a hard drive.
EIDE (Enhanced IDE) A standard for managing the interface between secondary storage devices and a computer system.
extended partition An extended partition can be divided into one or more logical drives. Each logical drive is assigned a drive letter (such as drive G:) and is formatted using its own file system.
external SATA (eSATA) standard that specifies full SATA cabling for external disks.
FAT12 The 12-bit wide, one-column file allocation table for a floppy disk, containing information about how each cluster or file allocation unit on the disk is currently used.
file allocation unit Another term for a cluster.
fault tolerance A computer’s ability to respond to a fault or catastrophe, such as a hardware failure or power outage, so that data is not lost.
file allocation table (FAT) A table on a hard drive or floppy disk that tracks how space on a disk is used to store files.
file allocation unit A cluster in the file allocation table (FAT).
file system The overall structure an OS uses to name, store, and organize files on a drive. In a file system, a cluster is the smallest unit of space on a disk for storing a file and is made up of one or more sectors.
floppy disk drive (FDD) a drive that can hold either a 5 ¼ inch or 3 ½ inch floppy disk.
Formatting The process, you specify the size of the partition and what file system it will use.
hard disk drive (HDD) Most often called a hard drive, comes in two sizes for personal computers
head The top or bottom surface of one platter on a hard drive. Each platter has two heads.
high-level formatting Formatting performed by means of the DOS or Windows Format program (for example, FORMAT C:/S creates the boot record, FAT, and root directory on drive C and makes the drive bootable). Also called OS formatting.
host adapter The circuit board that controls a SCSI bus supporting as many as seven or fifteen separate devices. The host adapter controls communication between the SCSI bus and the PC.
IDE (Integrated Device Electronics) A hard drive whose disk controller is integrated into the drive, eliminating the need for a controller cable and thus increasing speed, as well as reducing price. See also EIDE.
hot-plugging See hot-swappable.
hot-swapping Having the ability to connect and disconnect a drive while the system is running.
hybrid hard drives A drive that uses both solid state and magnetic technologies.
Integrated Device Electronics A loose term for the EIDE (enhanced IDE) standard.
Logical Unit Number (LUN) A number assigned to a logical device (such as a tray in a CD changer) that is part of a physical SCSI device, which is assigned a SCSI ID.
low-level formatting A process (usually performed at the factory) that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors and tests for bad spots on the disk surface.
magnetic hard drive A drive with one, two, or more platters, or disks that stack together and spin in unison inside a sealed metal housing that contains firmware to control reading and writing data to the drive and to communicate with the motherboard.
mirrored volume See RAID 1. Windows calls RAID 1 a mirrored volume.
New Technology file system (NTFS) A file system designed to provide greater security and to support more storage capacity than the FAT32 file system.
operating system formatting another term for high-level formatting.
parallel ATA An older IDE cabling method that uses a 40-pin flat data cable or an 80-conductor cable and a 40-pin IDE connector. See also serial ATA.
PIO (Programmed Input/Output) transfer mode A transfer mode that uses the CPU to transfer data from the hard drive to memory. PIO mode is slower than DMA mode.
RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks or redundant array of independent disks) Technology uses an array of hard drives used to provide fault tolerance and/or improvement in performance.
RAID 0 Uses space from two or more physical disks to increase the disk space available for a single volume. RAID 0 writes to the physical disks evenly across all disks so that no one disk receives all the activity, and therefore improves performance.
RAID 1 Is a type of drive imaging. It duplicates data on one drive to another drive and is used for fault tolerance.
RAID 5 stripes data across three or more drives and uses parity checking, so that if one drive fails, the other drives can re-create the data stored on the failed drive.
RAID-5 volumes See RAID 5.
read/write head A sealed, magnetic coil device that moves across the surface of a disk either reading data from or writing data to the disk.
ReadyDrive Windows Vista technology that supports a hybrid drive.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) A fast interface between a host adapter and the CPU that can daisy chain as many as 7 or 15 devices on a single bus.
SCSI ID A number from 0 to 15 assigned to each SCSI device attached to the daisy chain.
SCSI host adapter card commonly called the host adapter. The host adapter is inserted into an expansion slot on the motherboard and is responsible for managing all devices on the SCSI bus. A host adapter can support both internal and external SCSI devices, using one connector o
serial ATA (SATA) An ATAPI cabling method that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-conductor cable. See also parallel ATA.
serial ATA cable An IDE cable that is narrower and has fewer pins than the parallel IDE 80-conductor cable.
serial attached SCSI (SAS) The latest SCSI standard, serial SCSI, also called serial attached SCSI (SAS), allows for more than 15 devices on a single SCSI chain, uses smaller, longer, round cables, and uses smaller hard drive form factors that can support larger capacities
simple volume Another name for the primary volume.
S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology) A self-monitoring technology whereby the BIOS monitors the health of the hard drive and warns of an impending failure.
solid state device (SSD) A drive with no moving parts. Also called a solid state drive.
solid state drive (SSD) A drive with no moving parts. Also called a solid state device.
Spanning When two hard drives are configured as a single volume.
terminating resistor The resistor added at the end of a SCSI chain to dampen the voltage at the end of the chain.
Volume The primary partition. The volume is assigned a drive letter (such as drive C
Created by: Leisac