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CIT165 Ch 6

CIT165 Chapter 6 - Processors

QuestionAnswer
3DNow! Implemented by AMD. A processor instruction set designed to improve performance with 3D graphics and other multimedia data.
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) The current set of standards that is used by BIOS, hardware, and the OS to manage power.
back-side bus (BSB) The bus between the CPU and the L2 cache inside the CPU housing.
blue screen errors See stop errors.
C states An ACPI definition used by the processor to stop its internal operations to conserve power.
case fan Help to draw air into and out of the case.
Centrino Intel’s mobile processor technology. Using the Centrino technology, the Intel processor, chipset, and wireless network adapter are all interconnected as a unit, which improves laptop performance.
chassis air guide (CAG) Part of the case design. This air guide is a round air duct that helps to pull and direct fresh air from outside the case to the cooler and processor.
Cool’n’Quiet AMD technology to lower power requirements and helps keep a system quiet.
cooler A combination cooling fan and heat sink mounted on the top or side of a processor to keep it cool.
DRAM Memory modules (DIMMs) on the motherboard.
dual-core processing Two processors contained in the same processor housing that share the interface with the chipset and memory.
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST) Intel’s technology to put the processor in a sleep state when they are inactive and reduce voltage requirements and CPU frequency depending on the demands placed on the processor.
Execute disable bit An Intel security feature that prevents software from executing or reproducing itself if it appears to be malicious.
front-side bus (FSB) Another term for the system bus.
heat sink A piece of metal, with cooling fins, that can be attached to or mounted on an integrated chip (such as the CPU) to dissipate heat.
hyper-threading Intel’s technology to allow each logical processor within the processor package to handle an individual thread in parallel with other threads being handled by other processors within the package.
hyper transport AMD’s technology to allow each logical processor within the processor package to handle an individual thread in parallel with other threads being handled by other processors within the package.
internal bus The bus inside the CPU that is used for communication between the CPU’s internal components.
Level 1 (L1) cache A type of internal cache.
Level 2 (L2) cache A type of internal cache.
Level 3 (L3) cache A type of internal cache.
liquid cooling system A more exotic method to keep a system cool. Options include refrigeration, peltiers, and water coolers.
memory cache A small amount of faster RAM that stores recently retrieved data, in anticipation of what the CPU will request next, thus speeding up access. See also system bus.
microcode A programming instruction that can be executed by a CPU without breaking the instruction down into simpler instructions. Typically, a single command line in a Visual Basic or C++ program must be broken down into numerous microcode commands.
MMX (Multimedia Extensions) The first technology to support repetitive looping, whereby the processor receives an instruction and then applies it to a stream of data that follows. Prior to MMX, each data set had to be preceded by an instruction to process it. multi-core processing
multiplier The factor by which the bus speed or frequency is multiplied to get the CPU clock speed.
multiprocessor platform A system that contains more than one processor. The motherboard has more than one processor socket and the processors must be rated to work in this multi-processor environment.
octo core Multicore processing using eight cores and supporting sixteen instructions at once.
overclocking Running a processor at a higher frequency than is recommended by the manufacturer, which can result in an unstable system, but is a popular thing to do when a computer is used for gaming.
P states An ACPI definition where power is saved by lowering the CPU frequency and voltage.
PowerNow! AMD’s technology to put the processor in a sleep state when they are inactive and reduce voltage requirements and CPU frequency depending on the demands placed on the processor.
processor frequency The speed, or frequency, at which the CPU operates. Usually expressed in GHz.
quad core Multicore processing using four cores and supporting eight instructions at once.
S1 state An Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) power mode where the hard drive and monitor are turned off and everything else runs normally. Some manufacturers call this mode the sleep mode or standby mode.
S2 state An Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) power mode where the hard drive, monitor, and processor are turned off. This mode is also called standby or sleep mode.
S3 state An Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) power mode where everything is shut down except RAM and enough of the system to respond to a wake-up call such as pressing the keyboard or moving the mouse.
S4 state An Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) power mode called hibernation. In hibernation, everything in RAM is copied to a file on the hard drive and then the system shuts down.
static RAM (SRAM) RAM chips that retain information without the need for refreshing, as long as the computer’s power is on. They are more expensive than traditional DRAM.
SSE (Streaming SIMD Extension) An improvement over MMX. SIMD stands for “single instruction, multiple data.” As with MMX, it allows the CPU to receive a single instruction and then execute it on multiple pieces of data. SSE also improves on 3D graphics.
SSE2 SSE2 has a larger instruction set than SSE.
SSE3 SSE3 improves on SSE2.
SSE4 SSE4 increases the instruction set to improve 3D imaging for gaming and improve performance with data mining applications.
stop errors Errors that occur while Windows Vista/XP is loading. They appear on a blue background and the system halts.
thermal compound A creamlike compound placed between the bottom of the cooler heatsink and the top of the processor. This compound eliminates air pockets, helping to draw heat off the processor.
triple core Multicore processing using three cores and supporting six instructions at once.
Created by: Leisac