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MIS 340 Chapter 5

vocabulary from the textbook

address resolution the process of determining the lower-layer address from a high-layer address (e.g. IP address resolution = determining the IP address from the application-layer address)
ARP "Address Resolution Protocol" the network-layer protocol standard for data link layer address resolution requests
address a coded representation of the destination of data or of its originating source
application layer address Internet addresses or "server names" such as www.ua.edu
BGP "Border Gateway Protocol" an exterior routing protocol; a network-layer standard protocol used to exchange route information between routers using dynamic decentralized routing
broadcast message a type of messaging that sends to all computers in a network
centralized routing all routing decisions are made by one central computer or router; commonly used on host-based networks
connectionless messaging each packet is treated separately and makes its own way through the network (e.g. UDP ("User Datagram Protocol"))
connection-oriented messaging sets up a virtual circuit between the sender and receiver (e.g. TCP ("Transmission Control Protocol"))
data link address e.g. Ethernet (usually expressed in hexadecimal)
destination port address one of two addresses given to TCP software for an outgoing message; indicates the destination computer
distance vector routing a form of dynamic routing in which the computers or routers count the number of "hops" along a route, then uses the route with the LEAST number of hops (used by Routing Information Protocol (RIP))
DNS "Domain Name Server" a server that provides a directory used to supply IP addresses for application-layer addresses--that is, a server that performs IP address resolution (translates an Internet/server name into an IP address)
dynamic addressing in which a server is designated to supply a network layer address (IP address) to a computer each time the computer connects to the network
DHCP "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol" a network layer protocol standard used to supply TCP/IP address information using dynamic addressing
dynamic routing a form of decentralized routing; meant to improve network performance by routing messages over the fastest possible route while continuously updating the routing table to reflect changing network conditions
exterior routing protocol a protocol that is used between/outside autonomous systems; usually provide info about only the preferred/best routes rather than all possible routes
gateway a device that connects two dissimilar networks; allows networks of different vendors to communicate by translating one vendor's protocol into another
hop one circuit e.g. a route from one computer to another that passes through only one other computer would be 2 hops (from A to C through B)
interior routing protocols routing protocols used inside an autonomous system; provide detailed routing info about all or most computers inside the network
ICMP "Internet Control Message Protocol" a simple network layer protocol standard intended to exchange limited routing info between routers (most commonly known as a "ping")
ICANN "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" responsible for managing the assignment of network layer addresses (IP addresses) and application layer addresses
link state routing a form of dynamic routing in which computers or routers track the number of hops, speed, and amount of traffic on each route
multicast message used to send a message to a specific group of computers
network layer address IP addresses, essentially; application layer addresses (such as www.ua.edu) translated into IP addresses (such as
OSPF "Open Shortest Path First" a network-layer standard protocol used to exchange route info between routers using dynamic decentralized routing
QoS "Quality of Service" the ability of devices to give different priorities to different types of messages so that some messages (e.g. voice telephone data) are transmitted faster than other messages (e.g. email)
RTSP "Real Time Streaming Protocol" permits application layer software to request connections that have certain minimum data transfer capabilities; RTSP is geared toward audio/video streaming applications, specifically
router a device that connects two similar networks having the same network protocol; chooses the best route between two networks when there are multiple paths between them
RIP "Routing Information Protocol" a network layer standard protocol used to exchange route info between routers using dynamic decentralized routing
routing table specifies how messages will travel through the network
segment the PDU ("Protocol Data Unit") for the transport layer
segmenting to take one outgoing message from the application layer and break it into a set of smaller segments for transmission through the network, or reassemble the segments of an incoming message for the application layer from the network layer
source port address one of two addresses given to TCP software for an outgoing message; indicates the sending computer's port address
static routing a form of decentralized routing in which the routing table is developed by the network manager and remains unchanged until the network manager updates it
subnet mask used to tell which portion of an IP address defines the Network ID and which portion defines the Host ID
TCP/IP "Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol" the oldest and most commonly used networking standard, developed for ARPANET, now used on the Internet;
UDP "User Datagram Protocol" a connectionless transport layer protocol standard used by TCP to send short messages (such as DNS requests)
Created by: Gossamer