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Managing the IS Infrastructure and Services

Infrastructure The technical structure enabling the provision of services
Information Systems Infrastructure Hardware, software, communication and collaboration networks, databases, etc that support the decision making of a company.
Input Technologies used to enter information into a computer (keyboard and mouse, fingerprint scanner)
Processing Technologies Transforms inputs into outputs, encompassing both storage and computational resources
Output Technologies Deliver information to you in a usable format
Central Processing Unit Responsible for performing all operations of the computer; loads operating system, performing, coordinating and managing all instructions relayed to it while the computer is running
digitized translated into binary code
Primary Storage RAM temporary storage space for data that is currently being processed, Volatile memory
Secondary Storage Used for permanently storing data, it retains the data when the power is shut off.Nonvolatile memory.
Software programs or sets of instructions that allow all the hardware components in your computer system to speak to each other and perform desired tasks
Systems Software Collection of programs that control the basic operations of computer hardware.
Operating System Most prominent type of systems software, oordinates the interaction between hardware devices, peripherals, application software and users
Application Software lets a user perform SPECIFIC tasks, such as writing business letters, processing payroll, etc.
Open Source Software A program whos source code is freely available for use, and/or modification... succes due to large input base
Types of Computers: Supercomputer, Mainframe, Server, Workstation, Microcomputer
Supercomputer One to many users, Like an automobile to as large as multiple rooms, scientific research, hella memory, millions of dollars
Mainframe 1,000+ users simultaneously, like a refrigerator, large general purpose business and government, lots of GB, very expensive
Server like a DVD player, provides web sites or access to databases, fairly inexpensive relatively
Workstation One user, fitting on a desktop
Microcomputer One user, handheld to fitting on a desktop, used for personal productivity, relatively inexpensive
Databases Collections of related data organized in a way that facilitates data searches
Database management Systems A type of application program that allows organizations to more easily store, retrieve and analyze data
Computer Networking requires.. Senders and receivers with a message, medium or transmission pathway in which to send message, and rules or protocols that dictate communication between the two
Bandwidth The transmission capacity of a computer or communications channel, measured in Bits per second, represents how much binary data can be reliably transmitted over the medium in one second.
Network Consists of servers, clients and peers
Server Any computer on the network that makes access to files, printing, communications and other services available to users of the network
Client Any computer or software application that uses the services provided by the Server.
Peer Any computer that may both request and provide services. Businesses use Server-Centric networks, P2P used by homes
Different Types of Networks Private Branch Excange, Personal Area Network, Local Area Network, Campus Area Network, Metropolitan Area Network, Wide Area Network
PBX Private Branch Exchange, used within a business, telephone system serving a particular location
PAN Personal Area Network, Wireless communication between devices using technologies such as Bluetooth, under 10 meters
LAN Local Area Network, Sharing of data, software applications, or other resources between several users, within a building
CAN Campus area Network; Connect multiple LAN's, used by single organization
MAN Metropolitan Area Network; connect multiple LAN's; used by a single organization, city wide
WAN Wide area Network; Connect multiple LAN's, distributed ownership and management, THE INTERNET (world wide web)
Internet A large, worldwide collection of networks that use a common protocol to communicate with each other (comes from internetworking
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency 1960's a project that produced the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), U of Cali and Stanford 1st users; National Science Foundation Network
Packet Switching Based on Concept of Turn taking, and enables millions of users to send large and small chunks of data simultaneously; turn taking!
Transmission Control Protocol (IP/TCP) The protocol used by the internet. Breaks data into small chunks called data packets, transfers those packets from computer to computer. Connected by router.
IP Datagram A data packet that conforms to the IP specifications, this works because every computer and router has a unique IP address
TCP Performs these three main tasks... First, automatically checks for datagrams that have been lost en route to their destination. Second, collects incoming datagrams and puts them in the correct order,.Last, discards duplicate copies
World Wide Web is.. A system of interlined documents on the internet; a graphical user interface to the Internet that provides users with a simple, consistent interface to access a wide variety of information
Web browser A software application used to locate and display web pages, including text, graphics and multimedia content
History of World Wide web.. First used tool Gopher, then Hyper text and hyper links introduced, HTML
WWW Proliferation included three events.. Introduction of the Web, Information Infrastructure Act, Arrival of Mosaic(graphical web browser)
URL Uniform Resource Locator, used to identify and locate a particular web page; contains domain, top level domain and host name
Domain name, Top level domain name, host Name in Google Example www.=host name google=Domain name .com=top level domain name
Moore's Law Hypothesis that the number of transistors on a chip would double ~ every two years
Obsolescence and Planned Obsolescence Issues with constant upgrading of products and services. Some plan in advance for this. Powerful hardware enables powerful software... which requires powerful hardware!
Space and Facility Requirements to consider.. Connectivity, Floor Space, Provision of Energy and cooling, and Security
Utility Computing Model Organizations rent resources from an external provider on an as needed basis.
Some long term strategic issues involved in choosing different service providers include.. -Scalability(will it meet changing needs in terms of storage,etc?) -Viability(long term stability?) -Diversity(easier to manage fewer providers that can meet all your needs) -Support Policies (how will issues be resolved)
Other Issues of a more technical nature involved in choosing service providers inlude.. -Availability/Reliability -Security -Openness -Compliance -Privacy -Openness
Virtualization Multiple virtual machines, each with its own applications, can be configured to run on one single computer (better utilization of resources)
Cloud Computing A model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources, that can be rapidly released with minimal interaction between servers and providers
Cloud Characteristics On Demand Self Service (buffet style-as needed basis) Rapid Elasticity (quickly) Ubiquitous Network Access (accessible) Resource Pooling Measured Service Service Models
Different Cloud Computing Service Models Software as a Service (SaaS)- customer uses an application provided via a cloud infrastructure; gmail, -Platform as a Service(PaaS)user has control over applications but not over infrastructure -Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)greatest flex
Private and Public Clouds Public: any interested party can use on pay-per use basis Private: Owned by client, internal to an organization
Grid Computing Helps solve large scale computing problems; combines computing power of multiple smaller, independant networked computers in order to solve large scaled problems
Edge Computing Moving Processing and data storage away from a centralized network to the edges of a network(Akamai)
IP Convergence An increasing convergence within the underlying infrastructure or devices; the use of IP for transporting voice, video, fax and data traffic that has allowed new forms of communication and collaboration & traditional forms to be less expensive!
Voice Over IP VoIP:the use of internet technology for placing calls (cost savers)
Videoconferencing over IP Pretty much what it sounds like... skype, HALO room, etc.
Green Computing Helping to use computers more efficiently, doing the same or more for less. Examples: using virtualization, cloud computing, discouraging printing of things...Retiring of obsolete hardware!
Created by: 683063277


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