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MAP Diseases

Diseases for the Competency Test from Unit Objectives

DiseaseSymptoms
Acne Overactive and inflamed glands in some body regions become plugged, producing blackheads (comedomes), or surrounded by small, red elevations producing pimples (pustules).
Skin Cancers Usually arises in nonpigmented epithelial cells in the deep layer of the epidermis, or from melanocytes.
Basal Cell Carcinoma From epithelial cells. Hard, dry, scaly growths (lesions) that have reddish bases.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma From epithelial cells. Hard, dry, scaly growths (lesions) that have reddish bases.
Malignant Melanoma From melanocytes. Pigmented with melanin. Can be brown, clack, gray, or blue. Irregular outlines and may feel bumpy.
Decubitus Ulcers Pressure ulcers. Epidermal cells die if their blood supply from the dermis is blocked. The cells die, and the tissues begin to break down and an ulcer may appear.
Herniated Disk Pressure breaks the outer layer of fibrocartilage of a disc, which squeezes out the central mass. Can cause back pain, numbness or loss of muscle function.
Osteoarthritis Degenerative disorder that may result from aging or a poorly healed injury. Articular cartilage softens and disintegrates, roughening the articular surfaces.
Osteoporosis Cells that form new bone tissue can't keep up with the cells that break the bone tissue down. The spaces in the bones enlarge, weakening the bones.
Scoliosis Curving of the spine
Spina Bifida The laminae of the vertebrae fail to unite during development. The vertebral arch remains incomplete. Contents of the vertebral canal protrude outward.
Fibromyalgia Chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and tenderness in localized areas
Muscular Dystrophy Muscles weaken and degenerate because of missing or abnormal dystrophin.
Shin Splints Acute pain in the shin and lower leg, caused by inflammation of the front part of the tibia
ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Progressive degeneration of the motor neurons of the central nervous system, leading to wasting of the muscles and paralysis
Alzheimer's Progressive form of presenile dementia that is similar to senile dementia except that it usually starts in the 40s or 50s
Bacterial Meningitis Inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebral Palsy Marked by impaired muscle coordination and/or other disabilities, typically caused by damage to the brain before or at birth
Epilepsy Nerve impulses reaching synaptic knobs too rapidly resulting in a seizure.
Multiple Sclerosis Chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord
Parkinson's Neurons release less dopamine, and the basal nuclei become overactive, inhibiting movement.
Presbyopia "Aging eyes"
Myopia Near-sightedness
Hyperopia Far-sightedness
Cataracts The lens or its capsule slowly becomes cloudy and opaque
Conjuctivitis Inflammation of the conjuctiva, which is a mucous membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the eyelids and fold back to cover the anterior surface of the eyeball
Deafness The inability to hear sounds.
Conductive Deafness Interference with the transmission of vibrations to the inner ear
Sensorineural Deafness Damage to the cochlea, auditory nerve, or auditory nerve pathways
Glaucoma The aqueous humor forms faster than it is removed. the fluid pressure rises and squeezes shut blood vessels that supply the receptor cells of the retina
Macular Degeneration Eye disease caused by degeneration of the cells of the macula lutea and results in blurred vision; can cause blindness
Middle Ear Infection Inflammation of the middle ear
Strabismus Condition of having a squint of the eyes
Tinnitus Ringing or buzzing in the ears
Vertigo Sensation of loss of balance or whirring
Acromegaly Overproduction of growth hormone in adulthood. Enlarged heart, bones, thyroid gland, facial features, hands, feet, and head.
Cretinism A form of hypothyroidism, in children. child appears normal, but after birth, symptoms include: stunted growth, abnormal bone formation, retarded mental development, low body temp, and sluggishness
Diabetes Mellitus Metabolic disease that arises from lack of insulin or inability of cells to recognize it.
Dwarfism Insufficient secretion of growth hormone during childhood limits growth. body parts normally proportioned and mental development normal
Gigantism Oversecretion of growth hormone during childhood. Usually a result of a pituitary gland tumor
Hyperthyroidism Overactivity of the thyroid gland. Elevated metabolic rate, restlessness, and overeating
Hypothyroidism Underactivity of the thyroid gland. Fatigue, weight gain
Myxedema Swelling of the skin and underlying tissues giving a waxy consistency, typical of patients with underactive thyroid
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) Severe loss of the body's cellular immunity, greatly lowering the resistance to infection and malignancy
Measles Viral disease causing fever and a red rash on the skin
Mumps Contagious and infectious viral disease causing swelling of the parotid salivary glands in the face, and a risk of sterility in men
Rubella Symptoms like mild measles. contagious. can cause fetal malformation if contracted in early pregnancy
Tetanus Bacterial disease marked by rigidity and spasms of the voluntary muscles
Anemias Deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn When a woman has antibodies against a baby's blood type and starts to attack the fetal red blood cells
Hemophilia The ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced
Leukemia Malignant progressive disease in which the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes
Mononucleosis Abnormally high proportion of monocytes in the blood
Polycythemia Abnormally increased concentration of hemoglobin in the blood, either through reduction of plasma volume or increase in red blood cells
Aneurysm Excessive localized enlargement of an artery caused by a weakening of the artery wall
Arteriosclerosis Thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries
Artherosclerosis Disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on the inner walls
Cerebrovascular Accident Stroke: sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture of a blood vessel leads to lack of oxygen in the brain
Coronary Artery Disease The end result of the accumulation of artheromatous plaques within the walls of the coronary arteries
Hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure
Murmur Recurring sound heard in the heart. Sometimes a sign of abnormal functions of the heart valves
Myocardial Infarction Destruction of the heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
Emphysema Condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarges, causing breathlessness
Influenza Highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory passages causing fever and severe aching
Lung Cancer One of the most common forms of cancer. uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lungs
Pneumonia Lung inflammation caused by bacterial or viral infection, in which the air sacs fill with pus and may become solid
SIDS Sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant during sleep
Tuberculosis Infectious bacterial disease characterized by the growth of nodules in the tissues, especially in the lungs
Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix
Cirrhosis Chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue
Colorectal Cancer Cancer that occurs in the colon, rectum, or the appendix
Gallstones Small, hard crystalline mass formed abnormally in the gallbladder or bile ducts from bile pigments, cholesterol, and calcium salts
Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver
Obesity Weighing more than 20-25% over a person's ideal weight determined by height and build
Ulcers Open sore on an external or internal surface of the body, caused by a break in the skin or mucous membrane that fails to heal
Cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder
Diabetes Insipidus Rare form of diabetes caused by a deficiency of the pituitary hormone vasopressin, which regulates kidney function
Glomerulonephritis Acute inflammation of the kidney, typically caused by an immune response
Incontinence Involuntary urination or defecation
Kidney Stones Hard mass formed in the kidneys, typically consisting of insoluble calcium compounds
Renal Failure Inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
Urinary Tract Infections Any infection of any of the organs of the urinary tract
Reproductive Cancers Cancers that affect the reproductive system
Breast Cancer One of the most common malignancies in women. Cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of the milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk
Testicular Cancer Malignant tumor of the testis, usually occurring in older men
Cervical Cancer Potentially deadly uncontrolled growth of the cells of the cervix
Ovarian Cancer Cancerous growth arising from different parts of the ovary
Prostate Cancer Cells of the prostate grow in uncontrolled, abnormal, manner. Has the potential to spread to other parts of the body
Endometriosis Condition resulting from the appearance of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and causing pelvic pain
Impotence Inability to develop or maintain an erection
Sexually Transmitted Infections Various infections that are usually contracted through sexual contact. Some are treatable while others are not
Gonorrhea Venereal disease involving inflammatory discharge from the urethra or vagina
Syphilis Chronic bacterial disease that is contracted chiefly by infection during sexual intercourse, but also congenitally by infection of a developing fetus
Genital Herpes Disease characterized by blisters in the genital area
Chlamydia Sexually transmitted disease caused by a parasitic bacterium that lives inside cells of the reproductive tracts
Trichomoniasis Very common inflammation of the vagina caused by a parasitic trichomonads
Genital Warts Small growth occurring in the anal or genital areas
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Virus with subtypes that cause diseases in humans ranging from common warts to cervical cancer
Created by: swim_crazy