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CIT165 HW Comp Ch5

CIT165 Hardware Components - All About Motherboards

QuestionAnswer
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) Ports developed specifically for video cards.
active partition The partician used for booting.
audio/modem riser (AMR) A specification for a small slot on a motherboard to accommodate an audio or modem riser card. A controller on the motherboard contains some of the logic for the audio or modem functionality.
boot loader Responsible for loading the OS.
boot record A 512-byte sector is physically the second sector on the hard drive right behind the MBR. This OS boot record contains a small program that points to a larger OS program file that is responsible for starting the OS load.
booting Refers to the computer bringing itself up to a working state without the user having to do anything but press the on button.
BootMgr The OS boot record program for Windows Vista.
CMOS battery A lithium coin-cell battery enables CMOS RAM to hold configuration data, even while the main power to the computer is off.
communication and networking riser (CNR) A specification for a small expansion slot on a motherboard that accommodates a small audio, modem, or network riser card.
CrossFire ATI ‘s technology for installing two video cards on a motherboard.
dual inline package (DIP) switch A switch on a circuit board or other device that can be set on or off to hold configuration or setup information.
front panel header The corner of the motherboard for lights and switches.
hard boot A hard boot, or cold boot, involves turning on the power with the on/off switch.
I/O shield The plate installed in the computer case to provide holes for I/O ports.
jumper Two wires that stick up side by side on the motherboard and are used to hold configuration information. The jumper is considered closed if a cover is over the wires, and open if the cover is missing.
land grid array (LGA) Sockets that use lands rather than pins.
Master Boot Record (MBR) A record at the beginning of the drive that contains the partition table, which contains a map to partitions on the drive.
North Bridge The faster hub in the Accelerated Hub Architecture.
Ntldr The OS boot record program for Windows XP.
On-board ports Ports that are directly on the motherboard, such as a built-in keyboard port or on-board serial port.
partition table The second item in the MBR, which contains a map to the partitions on the hard drive. This table tells BIOS how many partitions the drive has, where each partition begins and ends, and which partition is used for booting (called the active partition
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Buses have been improved several times. There are currently three major categories and within each category, several variations of PCI. The PCI buses are used for many types of cards, including video cards.
PCI Express (PCIe) PCI Express uses a serial bus, which is faster than a parallel bus because it transmits data in packets similar to how an Ethernet network, USB, and FireWire transmit data. A PCIe expansion slot can provide one or more of these serial lanes.
pin grid array (PGA) Sockets aligned with pins aligned in uniform rows around the socket. Used in earlier Pentiums.
power-on password A password that a computer uses to control access during the boot process.
program file A program file contains a list of instructions stored in a file.
riser card A card that plugs into a motherboard and allows for expansion cards to be mounted parallel to the motherboard. Expansion cards are plugged into slots on the riser card.
sector See track.
SLI (Scalable Link Interface) NVIDIA’s technology for installing two video cards on a motherboard.
soft boot A soft boot, or warm boot, involves using the operating system to reboot.
South Bridge The slower hub in the Accelerated Hub Architecture.
Spacers Another term for standoffs.
staggered pin grid array (SPGA) Having the pins staggered over the socket to squeeze more pins into a small space.
standoffs Round plastic or metal pegs that separate the motherboard from the case, so that components on the back of the motherboard do not touch the case.
startup password Another term for power-on password.
track Concentric circles on a hard drive. Each track is divided into segments called sectors, and each sector can hold 512 bytes of data. The Master Boot Record (MBR), contains the master boot program'
user password A password enabling you to logon to the operating system.
wait state A clock tick in which nothing happens. Used to ensure that the microprocessor is not getting ahead of slower components. A 0-wait state is preferable to a 1-wait state. Too many wait states can slow down a system.
zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets Square or nearly square sockets so that even force is applied when inserting the processor in the socket, all current processor sockets have a lever on the side of the socket.
Created by: Leisac