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Cardiac Emergency1

Cardiac Emergency Terms and Definitions

QuestionAnswer
Condition in which a portion of the myocardium dies as a result of oxygen starvation, sometimes referred to as a heart attack acute myocardial infarction
Dilation or ballooning of a weakened section in the wall of an artery. aneurysm
Pain in the chest that occurs when the blood supply to the heart is reduced and a portion of the heart muscle is not receiving enough oxygen angina pectoris
Irregular, or absent, heart rhythm arrhythmia
Condition in which artery walls become hard and stiff due to calcium deposits. arteriosclerosis
When the heart has ceased (stopped) generating electrical impulses. asystole
Buildup of fatty deposits on the inner walls of arteries. atherosclerosis
Blanket term for any kind of heart problem. cardiac compromise
Condition of excessive fluid buildup in the lungs and/or other organs and body parts because of the inadequate pumping of the heart. congestive heart failure
Diseases that affect the arteries of the heart. coronary artery disease
Swelling resulting from a build up of fluid in tissues edema
Clot of blood an plaque which has broken loose from the wall of an artery and then moves to smaller arteries and blocks blood flow. embolism
blockage occlusion
Accumulation of fluid in the feet or ankles. pedal edema
Accumulation of fluid in the lungs. pulmonary edema
Condition in which the heart's electrical rhythm remains relatively normal, yet the mechanical pumping activity fails to follow the electrical activity, causing cardiac arrest. pulseless electrical activity (PEA)
Cardiac arrest that occurs within two hours of the onset of symptoms. sudden death
Clot formed of blood and plaque attached to the inner wall of an artery. thrombus
Condition in which the heart's electrical impulses are disorganized, preventing the heart muscle from contracting normally. ventricular fibrillation
Condition in which the heartbeat is quite rapid; if rapid enough, it will not allow the heart's chambers to fill with enough blood between beats to produce blood flow sufficient to meet the body's needs ventricular tachycardia
The patient may describe chest pain from the heart as: dull, squeezing, crushing
Pain or discomfort from a heart problem commonly radiates to the: arms and jaw
In addition to chest pain or discomfort, the patient with cardiac compromise will also complain of: dyspnea
A patient with heart problems may complain of: pain in the center of the chest, mild chest discomfort, difficulty breathing
If the heart is beating too fast or too slow, the patient with cardiac compromise may also: lose consciousness
Signs and symptoms of cardiac compromise include: difficulty breathing, abnormal pulse rate, pain in the chest/upper abdomen, sudden onset of sweating with nausea or vomiting
Emergency medical care of a patient with cardiac compromise should include: Placing the person in a comfortable position, administering high-concentration oxygen by a nonrebreather mask, assisting the patient with nitroglycerin administration if authorized
The "position of comfort" for a conscious patient who is having chest pain and difficulty breathing- prone
Nitroglycerin should be considered when the patient: is hypertensive and has a headache, loses consciousness after feeling dizzy, has chest pain for over five minutes and is hypotensive
In order for EMT-B to administer nitroglycerin, these conditions must be met: medical direction to authorize its administration, medication is prescribed by the physician, the patient's blood pressure if GREATER than 100 systolic
Maximum doses of nitroglycerin given in the field: 3
Created by: UBEMT