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Phys. 5-test 1

Where is calcium stored and released? sarcoplasmic reticulum
What divides the reticulum into lateral sacs? T-tubules
Contractile units of the muscle fiber sarcomere
Cross bridge cycle (4) 1. ATP binds to myosin 2. myosin attaches to actin 3. power stroke 4. detachment and attachment of another ATP
What components of the sarcomere dissapear after full contraction? H-zone and I-band
What initiates muscle contraction? Calcium binds to troponin
Point at which the nerve enters the whole muscle motor point
What picks up the transmitted AP from the sarcolemma? T-tubules
All neuro-muscular junctions are what? excitatory
From EPP to contraction lasts how long? 10 msec. (electrical activity)
From contraction to relaxation last how long? 100 msec. (mechanical activity)
What drug occupies ACH receptors? arrow poison (curare)
What drug destroys ACH-esterase nerve gas
How does arrow poison cause death? no muscle contraction because its an antagonist to ACH
How does nerve gas cause paralysis? destroys ACH-esterase and causes continuous depolarization at the junction
What block releases ACH and causes no muscle contraction? botulin toxin
What drug competes for calcium channels in axon terminal and prevents muscle contraction? magnesium sulfate
Most important skeletal muscle diaphragm
What factors influce EMG? frequency and strenghth of stimulus
What determines spatial summation? strength of stimulus
What determines temporal summation? frequency of stimulus
Isotonic contraction muscle shortens and pulls on the bone to produce movement; tension remains constant; example: knee bending
Isometric contraction minimal or no shortening of the muscle; energy is expended and tension in the muscle increases; example: pushing against a wall
What causes rigor mortis? happens after death due to lack of ATP
What is myasthenia gravis? autoimmune disease in which antibodies bind and block ACH receptors; results in weak contraction
What is poliomyelitis? Viral disease; destroys somatic motor neuron cell body; results in denervation and muscle atropy
Muscular dystrophy and muliple sclerosis demylelinating and autoimmune diseases
Types of skeletal muscles oxidative slow fibers (Type 1), oxidative fast fibers (Type IIA), glycolytic fast fibers (Type IIB)
What is the classification of muscle is mainly based on what? velocity of contraction and enzyme activity involved in ATP production
Chain of increase of ATP production 1. phosphagen 2. anaerobic 3. aerobic 4. oxidative phosphorylation (most ATP)
What activity produces lactic acid? short duration/high intensity
What activity depletes energy metabolites? long duration/low intensity
What is oxygen debt? extra oxygen used by fatigued muscles to burn off lactic acid
Oxidative fibers are preferred for what activity? endurance activities
glycolytic fibers aer preferred for what activity? powerful activities
Created by: kcapland



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