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Film 140

Midterm

QuestionAnswer
Accelerando Tempo gradually accelerating or getting faster.
Accent A stress or special emphasis on a beat to mark its position in the measure.
Accousmatic listening Hearing a sound without seeing the source.
Adagio A slow tempo marking between Largo and Andante.
ADR Automatic Dialogue Replacement. 1. To improve intelligibility 2. Change plot or the structure 3. Give additional info. Add a line or change the line. 4. Change the performance, place a different emphasis on the right syllable. 5. Dub.
Allegro A fast tempo.
Arpeggio Playing the notes of a chord consecutively. A broken chord in which the individual notes are sounded one after the other instead of simultaneously.
Beat The regular pulse of music which may be dictated by the rise or fall of the hand or baton of the conductor. Basic unit of measuring time. A recurring pattern of strong and weak beats.
Cadence A stylized close in music which divides the music into periods or brings it to a full conclusion. A musical pause or a stop.
Tonic Cadence Dominant chord to the Tonic, 5 1.
Plagal Cadence (Amen) Sub Dominant chord to the Tonic, 4 1.
Causal Listening Gathering Information about the sounds source.
Chord The sounding of two or more notes (usually at least three) simultaneously. You can have either a consonant chord, where the notes are at rest. Or a Dissonant chord, where the chord feels like it needs to go somewhere.
Compound Meter Meter in which each beat is divisible by three rather than two. can be counted in either three's or twos.
Consonance An accord of sounds sweet and pleasing to the ear as opposed to dissonance. Perfect consonances are the perfect fourth, fifth, and octave.
Counterpoint The art of combining two or more melodies to be performed simultaneously and musically. In counterpoint, the melody is supported by another melody rather than by chords.
Crescendo A directive to a performer to smoothly increase the volume of a particular phrase or passage. Designated with the crescendo symbol consisting of two horizontal lines that start together at a point at the left and spread apart to the right.
Decibel Precise measurement for how loud or soft, decibel. 1/10 of a bell. Named after alexander graham bell. Range of tolerable human hearing is 20-120 dB
Decrescendo A directive to a performer to smoothly decrease the volume of the specific passage. Designated with the decrescendo symbol consisting of two horizontal lines that start apart at the left and come together to a point at the right.
Dialogue Production, recorded while cameras were rolling on set. ADR/Looping. Automatic Dialogue Replacement. Sync, Non Sync Dialogue and Futz Dialogue.
Dissonance Two or more notes sounded together which are discordant, and, in the prevailing harmonic system, require resolution to a consonance. 2nds 7ths. A way to give internal narration to a character.
Dominant The fifth tone of the scale.
Duple Meter A rhythmic pattern with the measure being divisible by two. This includes simple double rhythm such as 2/2, 4/4, but also such compound rhythms as 6/8.
Dynamic Range Dynamic range, loudest and softest sound from 50dB-120 dB = DR of 70 dB.
Effects Everything added in post.
Equalization Altering the volume of selected frequencies. The base and treble
Fermata A notation marking directing the performer or ensemble to sustain the note of a composition affecting all parts and lasting as long as the artistic interpretation of the conductor allows. The fermata is marked above the note or rest to be held.
Foley Foley has expanded to include everything involving the human body. Best type of foley is the kind you don’t notice. Named after Jack Foley. Recorded in a studio with a variety of surfaces.
Forte A directive in music to perform a certain passage loudly. Forte is symbolized by the letter "f".
Frequency Frequency” the pitch of a sound how high or low the tone is. Hz, named after Hertz, originally called hertzian waves.
Frequency Response Highest and lowest frequencies something can produce, 20 hz -17k hz = 17k hz
Fundamental A base pitch from which a series of harmonics is produced. The base pitch upon which a chord is built. C Chord, fundamental pitch is C, also known as root pitch.
Futz manipulating a sound to make it appear to be coming from some mechanical device.
Harmony The combination of notes sounded simultaneously to produce chords. Used to describe consonance or dissonance.
Hertz Precise measurement of frequency.
Interval The distance between two pitches. A difference between any two notes is an interval.
Key Keys may be defined as major or minor, and are named after their tonic or keynote. Series of notes describes the tonality based on the home pitch.
Looping Another way to say ADR. Got this name because they used to loop the visual and audio for the actor to match when dubbing needed to take place or replacement.
Major. Term referring to a sequence of notes that define the tonality of the major scale. This series consists of seven notes. Brightness, white keys on piano.
Measure American term, equivalent to the English term "bar", signifying the smallest metrical divisions of a composition, containing a fixed number of beats, marked off by vertical lines on the staff.
Melody A tune; a succession of tones comprised of mode, rhythm, and pitches so arranged as to achieve musical shape, being perceived as a unity by the mind. A series of pitches.
Meter Measure of time; arrangement of poetical feet; the grouping of beats into regular patterns. 1. Duple 2. Triple 3. Compound.
Minor A series of tones that defines a minor tonality. Dark foreboding sad.
Mode 2 modes. Major and Minor mode. A series of notes into which the octave is divided according to specific systems.
Moderato A directive to perform the designated passage of a composition in a moderate tempo; moderately, restrained.
Modulation The process of changing from one key to another.
Monophonic Music that is written for only one voice or part is said to be monophonic
Motive A short tune or musical figure that characterizes and unifies a composition. It can be of any length, but is usually only a few notes long. Motive, distinctive recognizable fragment of a melody.
Music Any rhythmic, melodic, or harmonic grouping of sounds that is specifically composed and that forms a unity so as to convey a message, to communicate, or to entertain.
Six Elements of Music 1. Dynamics 2. Rhythm 3. Melody 4. Harmony 5. Tone color 6. Structure
Narration Qualities: 1. Volume, it is louder, 2. No Reverb 3. No Background noise, clean 4. Narration has a very wide frequency response 5. Consistant Volume
Types of Narration 1st person narration. Spoken by a character we recognize to be in the film. Non-sync dialogue. 3rd Person Narration, spoken by a person who is not in the film, an external person to the story, an unseen voice. 2nd person narration, combination of both
Noise Unwanted audio that is recorded, or static.
Octave Octave means 8. doubling from which every pitch you start on will be an Octave. Example: A 440 hz - A 880 hz.
Off-screen Non sync Dialogue.
On-screen Sync Dialogue.
Overtone Wach pitch that we hear contains addition pitches within it that are termed overtones or harmonics.The relative strength or weakness of these overtones determines the tone color or timbre of the pitch. This is why no two instruments sound alike.
Piano Dynamic marking meaning quiet. A directive to a musician to perform a certain passage softly (abbreviated p).
Pitch Frequency in music. Pitch defines the location of a tone in relation to others, thus giving it a sense of being high or low.
Presto A directive to perform the indicated passage of a composition very quickly.
Reduced Listening Listening to traits of the sound itself.
Reverb Reverb, more diffuse sound. Direct and reflected sound. Ratio of direct and reflected sound determines reverb.
Rhythm The subdivision of a space of time into a defined, repeated pattern. Rhythm is the controlled movement of music in time. It may be defined as the division of music into regular metric portions
Ritardando A directive to perform a certain passage of a composition with a ritard the tempo, to gradually delay the tempo. The abbreviation is rit.
Scale A series of notes in ascending or descending order that presents the pitches of a key or mode, beginning and ending on the tonic of that key or mode. A collection of Pitches.
Score Music that is not source, can narrate the scene. Can signify when a specific character arrives, or a specific situation.
Scource A combination of Score and Source. American graffiti
Semantic Listening Interpreting the meaning of a message. Language
Source Music that appears to be coming directly from within the scene.
Stereophonic
Sync Sound appears to coming directly from the subject.
Syncopation Deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse of a composition by means of a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an off-beat.
Tempo The speed of the rhythm of a composition. Tempo is measured according to beats per minute. The speed that the music is played in
Theme The musical basis upon which a composition is built. Usually a theme consists of a recognizable melody or a characteristic rhythmic pattern.
Tone Color The quality of a sound; that component of a tone that causes different instruments (for example a guitar and a violin) to sound different from each other while they are both playing the same note.
Tonic The note upon which a scale or key is based; the first note of a scale or key; the keynote.
Triple Meter Beats grouped in three's.
Tune An air or melody, a succession of sounds that has definite character and shape and is pleasing to the ear.
Volume Measured in decibels, 1/10 of a bell. Named after alexander graham bell.
Waltz In triple meter.
"Worldizing"
Spatial Dissonance What you hear doesn't match the spatial environment.
Jazz Singer Oct 6th, 1927. Two types of tech made movie possible. 1. sync sound. 2. perforated screen, speaker was placed behind screen in the middle.
Masking Where one sound masks the change in another.
Physical characteristics of sound (1-7) 1.Volume 2. Frequency - pitch of sound. 3. Equalization - Alter volume of selected frequencies. 4. Duration - long short 5. Discrete/continuous: individual sound or not. 6. Echo and reverb: echo discrete repetition. 7. Near/far: more reverb farther away.
Physical characteristics of sound (8-10 8. Location 9.Dynamic range: loudest to softest. 50 dB-120 dB = dynamic range of 70 dB. 10. Frequency response Highest to lowest frequency produced.
Temporal Dissonance Time period of speech and visual time period don't match up.
Physical Dissonance Physical characteristics of subject don't match the audio.
Physiology of Ear 1. Sound hits membrane and transfers to cochlea 2. Fluid is incompressible, basilar membrane moves. 3. Frequency location, Volume vertical movement. 4. Tectoral membrane doesn't move, hair cells are compressed against T mem, send signal to brain.
How to Locate Sound 1. Time, slightly different times in which the sound strikes ears. 2. Volume 3. Equalization changes due to structure of ear 4. Phase 5. Earlobes, pinna of your ear allows you to determine if sound is in front or behind.
Three the Elements of Sound in Industry 1. Dialogue 2. Music 3. Effects
Walter Murch Guest Lecture Fungibility: changeability. 1500-invention of credit opened up the Renaissance. 1900- Electricity, ability to make energy from just about anything, even mummies. 2000-ability to access information.
Film Stock Ratio of 100 to 1, every 100 feet equals 1 min of film and 1 pound. Apocalypse now, 14,160 minutes = 7 tons of work print.
Dynamics Volume of music.
Rubato A little pause, the value of one note is robbed and put to another one.
Victor Flemming “Good editing makes the film look well directed. Great editing makes the film look like it wasn’t directed at all." Gone with the wind and Oz in 39
Phrase Section of a melody, usually not complete, contains several motives.
Background Effects: Functions •1. They determine location. •2. Time: day or night. •3. Temperature. • 4. Edges of cuts: emphasis make a very hard cut.• 5. Physical properties.• 6. Convey the emotional state of the actor.
Variable Density 1922: Optical system. Analogue. DR 30 Db. FR 60hz-3khz. Very Noisy. Channels: C Movies: Jazz Singer. Test Pilot.
Variable Area 1939: Optical System. Analogue. DR 45Db. FR 60hz-6khz. Lower Noise. Channels: C. System still used today with mods.
35 MM 4 Track 1953: Magnetic System. Analogue. DR 60Db. FR 40hz-10khz. Less Noise. Channels: LCRS Movies: The Robe.
70 MM 55 1955: Magnetic System. Analogue. DR 85Db. FR 40hz-15khz. Low Noise. Channels: LLeRReSC Movies: Oklahoma!
70 MM 72 1972: Magnetic System. Analogue. DR 100 Db. FR 20hz-15khz. Low Noise. Channels: LBCBRS Movies: Star Wars.
Dolby Stereo 1977: Optical System. Analogue. DR 90Db. FR 40hz-12khz. Low Noise. Channels: LCRS Movies: A Star is Born. Apocalypse Now
Dolby Digital 1992: Optical System. Digital. DR 120Db. FR 0-20khz. No Noise. Channels: 5.1, 6.1 Movies: Batman Returns.
Analogue Physical representation of one property to another.
Contrast Contrast in sound pressure. Can use contrast to go from the observer to POV of a character. A way of creating suspense.
Embedded Sounds Sounds that are not actually apart of that occurrence, event, or subject. Should be subliminal.
Types of Sound Transitions Time transition: English Patient, acts as a sonic memory. Causal transition: Amadeus, scares deer. Metaphoric Transition. Spatial Transition: Right Stuff.
Atavistic Sounds Sounds that cause reactions that are hardwired into our system. No matter how many times we hear it, it still has an effect. These sounds are taken from the natural world.
Layering Effects Different layers of sound working together in order to create a "score"
Choice Between Emotional or Clear sound. Always Choose Emotional.
Filling the Sonic Spectrum In the spectrum between Volume and Frequency, finding the holes and working out how to fill them.
Expectations of Sound Creating a hole when a sound is expected is sometimes more powerful. By not putting in sound, allows audience to imagine sound, stronger impact. Rain Maker.
Foreshadowing Death birds. Bells ringing also a sign of death.
Sonic Contradiction Sonic expectations are broken. Example: Noisy Mimes
Power of Sound and Image: Ben Burt Sound is the foundation, sound has the unique ability to stimulate imagery. Movie sound is caricature of the real world, exaggerated.
First Reel First ten minutes are important for setting up the world sonically. Film maker has the chance to create a mood, setting, something intriguing.
Three Biggest Inovations in Movie Industry 1. Portable Sound Recorder. 2. Sampling. 3. Digital Audio for Exhibition.
Creative Dimensions of Sound: 1. Credibility to image. 2. Binds separate images together. 3. Creates a place. 4. Extends place beyond frame. 5. Enhances emotion. 6. Enhances character. 7. Controls pace. 8. Makes transitions. 9. Counterpoint image, new meaning. 10. Silence empowers.
Foreground Effects for specific objects, or actions. Individual.
Night Mail 36: Grierson and Britton • The theme to this is all about rhythm. • Dialogue, music and sound effects closely related to each other.
The River 37: Pare Lorentz Virgil Thompson, composer. • Lyrics Taken from a play write, Zora. • Music is based on folk lore music of the times. Uses very little sound effects
On the Bowery 57: Lionel Rogosin • This film a transition film that is from the POV of them selves. • Two scenes here, first time cameras have gone into a situation that is unscripted • Early example at an attempt at fly on the wall photography.
Lonely Boy 61: National Film Board of Canada • About a singer named Paul Anka • Thing is set up with an acknowledgement of camera’s but then switches to a fly on the wall camera.
Titicut Follies 67: Frederick Wiseman • fly on the wall approach, doesn’t influence anything being presented. • Differences between perfect sound and interesting sound. • Capture interesting sonic sounds for the places you go. Shows the power of sound. Power of Doc.
Love it like a fool 73: • Take advantage of possibilities of transitions or layers to make piece more interesting • An interesting way to get in and out of a situation insert a piece of footage such as a concert. • Make transitions or bridges or other visual elements
Dear America 87: Bill Couture. Political film Vietnam. • HBO film, celebrity voices read actual letters, written by actual soldiers • A way of increasing interest • First Rock n Roll war, music a very important sonic aspect of film.
Place for No Story 73: Phil Green. No narration, all done sonically, challenge here is that it was all shot from the air. Very impressionistic sonically.
Volkus and Co 72: Susan Fanshel. Sound comes from the sculture it's self and other objects with in the film. Very expressionistic in the quality.
Animation Director has complete freedom from everything. used to be done on cell animation, 12 frames per second. Usually in animation sound is recorded first, and the animation is place over it. Sound effects very minimal. Focus on foreground characters.
Kon Hungarian animation, Horses. Example of programatic music, attempts to imitate real sounds.
Fantasia Example of Programatic music, Radical interpretation of Night on Bald Mountain. Destroys your own images, a perceptual shift, to compare with the animators fully realized interpretation of the music.
Communist countries Animation Oppression in communist countries bred creativity.
Pin Animation A board filled with pins, light shines over board to create shadows which create the images. Invented by Alexieth and Parlec. A technique that is some how more interactive. 76 Mindscape. 33 Night on Bald Mountain.
Monsoir Tete, Mr. Head • Abstraction of language, to meaningless sounds. • Sound effects reduced to very basic sounds • Political references. • Example of power of words without using actual words.
Stochastic patterns Random but based on statistical probability
Brain Cleaner 2003: Music is evocative of rap and the rhythm, but is very abstract
Primordial Dance 91: Carl Syms. Beginning of computer animation, history of evolution.
Segments 2007: • Be aware of mental processes in trying to figure out what is happening. • We are pattern recognition machines • When there are no patterns, it messes with our nervous system.
Magnetic Changing magnetic properties on film to create sound.
Digital system A binary system that uses discrete values as a way of recording and presenting information.
Koncertissimo Animation as a less threatening way to express protest. Contrast between audience and band members. lots of chatter from the audience, and color. Army, stick figures black and white. People were undefined, no individualism.
Little Black Riding Hood Atavistic sounds, minimal, emotional value. Two musical themes, little riding hood theme and woof theme.
Every Child 79: all of the sounds done by two guys in a studio entertaining a baby.
History of the World Euro centric view of the history of the world, you have to be aware of this history in order to understand the semantic value of the music.
Il Signor Rossi Al Mare Simple atavistic sounds, change of perspective when he goes underwater.
Hobby Women collecting men as a hobby, sound expectations are broken in this piece. Starts abstract and then becomes more realistic. Comment on men as flighty creatures.
Diatonic Scale A B C D E F G A
Chromatic Scale Added 5 more pitches: C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C
Trill Playing two different notes back and forth repetitively. Adds a little flourish to a piece of music.
A Coda A term for a tail in music. happens at the end of a song.
Functions of Music • Manipulation of emotional space. • Identify characters or situations. • Provide continuity/contrast. • Provide transitions, comes before the cut, it foreshadows change, on the cut, emphasizes image. • Add or enhance a missing dimension
Created by: nkkennedy