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OB Test 3

Chapter 8

Feedback Information about an individual or collective performance shared with those in a position to improve the situation
Two Functions of Feedback 1. Instructional 2. Motivational
Three Sources of Feedback 1. Others 2. Task 3. Self
Four Behavioral Outcomes of Feedback 1. Direction 2. Effort 3. Persistence 4. Resistance
Upward Feedback Stands the traditional approach on its head by having lower-level employees provide feedback on a manager's style and performance Anonymous
360-Degree Feedback Letting individuals compare their own perceived performance with behaviorally specific performance information from their manager, subordinates, and peers AKA Full Circle Feedback
Feedback Don'ts 1. use to punish, embarrass, or put down 2. provide irrelevant feedback 3. provide feedback that is too late 4. Provide feedback beyong individual's control 5. provide overly complex or difficult to understand
Feedback Do's 1. Keep relevant 2. Deliver as soon as possible 3. Provide specific and descriptive feedback 4. Focus on things that can be controlled 5. Be honest, developmental, and constructive 6. Facilitate two-way communication
3 Key Factors in Organizational Reward Systems 1. Types of Rewards 2. Distribution Criteria 3. Desired Outcomes
Total Rewards Encompass not only compensation and benefits, but also personal and professional growth opportunities and a motivating work environment that includes recognition, job design, and work-life balance
Extrinsic Rewards Financial, material, and social rewards from the environment
Intrinsic Rewards Psychic rewards that are self-granted
Distribution Criteria 1. Performance: Results 2. Performance: Actions and Behaviors 3. Nonperformance Considerations
Pay for Performance Popular term for monetary incentives linking at least some portion of the paycheck directly to the results or accomplishments
Rewards often fail to ____ Motivate
Law of Effect Behavior with favorable consequences tends to be repeated, while behavior with unfavorable consequences tends to disappear.
Respondent Behavior Unlearned reflexes or stimulus-response connections
Operant Behavior Behavior that is learned when one "operates on" the environment to produce desired consequences Response-Stimulus
Contingent Consequences Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment Extinction DEF: there is a systematic if-then linkage between the target behavior and the consequence
Positive Reinforcement Process of strengthening a behavior by contingently presenting something pleasing
Negative Reinforcement Strengthens a desired behavior by contingently withdrawing something displeasing
Punishment The process of weakening behavior through either the contingent presentation of something displeasing or the contingent withdrawal of something positive.
Extinction Weakening a behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced Deleting a phone number removes communication
Continuous Reinforcement Every instance of a target behavior is reinforced when a CRF schedule is in effect
Intermittent Reinforcement Involves reinforcement of some but not all instances of a target behavior Fixed Ratio - bonuses tied to sales Variable Ratio - slot machine level pulls Fixed Interval - Paychecks and annual bonus Variable Interval - random praise and pats on the bac
Shaping The process of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to a target market Training an whale to be ridden
Created by: 1126290085