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System Analysis

CS235 System Analysis and Design

software controls the flow of data, provides data security, and manages network operations. System
When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called legacy systems
Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent company operations and information needs business process modeling
A business ____ is an overview that describes a company’s overall functions, processes, organization, products, services, customers, suppliers, competitors, constraints, and future direction. profile
____ enabled computer-to-computer transfer of data between companies, usually over private telecommunications networks. EDI
User productivity systems ____. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video and Web conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, desktop publishing, presentation graphics, company intranets, and high-speed Internet access
A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide. business model
____ is a systems development technique that tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decisions are made Prototyping
Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. SDLC
____ provides vital protection and maintenance services for system software and hardware, including enterprise computing systems, networks, transaction processing systems, and corporate IT infrastructure. Systems support and security
____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. Strategic
During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a ____ analysis because it examines a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. SWOT
____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. Customer relationship management (CRM)
If a problem arises that involves a mission-critical system, an IT ____ team would attempt to restore normal operations. maintenance
A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system. technical
When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time
A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action. preliminary
The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____. conduct interviews
In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview
A project manager’s planning _____. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs
A project manager’s scheduling function _____. involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members
Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____. defining project constraints
The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____. identify all the project tasks
In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project. milestones
A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule. critical
A risk management plan includes a review of all of the following EXCEPT ____. employees
A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it. response
The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. systems analysis
____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution Analytical skills
RAD relies heavily on ____. prototyping and user involvement
A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system. use case diagram
____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration
In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____. TCO
In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses open-ended questions
Supporters of neutral locations for interviews believe that it ____. keeps interruptions to a minimum so people can concentrate fully
When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. random sample
refers to the combination of hardware, software, and services that people use to manage, communicate, and share information. Information technology (IT)
is a step-by-step process for developing high-quality information systems. Systems analysis and design
combines information technology, people, and data to support business requirements. information system
who plan, develop, and maintain information systems. systems analysts
Traditionally, a company either developed its own information systems in-house applications
purchased systems software packages
is one that is vital to a company’s operations. An order processing system, for example, is mission-critical because the company cannot mission-critical system
consists of basic facts that are the system’s raw material. data
is data that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users Information
consists of everything in the physical layer of the information system. Hardware
predicted that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit would double about every 24 months. Moore’s Law
refers to the programs that control the hardware and produce the desired information or results. Software
manages the hardware components, which can include a single workstation or a global network with many thousands of clients. System software
consists of programs that support day-to-day business functions and provide users with the information they require Application software
Examples of company- wide applications enterprise applications
is a system, such as an inventory or payroll application, that can be adapted for use in many different types of companies. horizontal system
is designed to meet the unique requirements of a specific business or industry, such as a Web-based retailer, a medical practice, or a video chain. vertical system
describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results. Processes
For complex operations, however, analysts apply computer-based modeling tools that use a standard language called business process modeling notation
newest kind of company Internet-dependent firm
enabled company-to-company traffic to migrate to the Internet, which offered standard protocols, universal availability, and low communication costs. XML is a flexible data description language that allows extensible markup language (XML)
On an industry-wide scale, many B2B sites exist where buyers, sellers, distributors, and manufacturers can offer products, submit specifications, and transact business. supply chain management (SCM)
refers to information systems that support company-wide operations and data management requirements. Enterprise computing
provide cost-effective support for users and managers throughout the company enterprise resource planning (ERP)
process data generated by day-to-day business operations. Examples of TP systems include customer order processing, accounts receivable, and warranty claim processing. Transaction processing (TP) systems
called expert systems because they simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied. Knowledge management systems
provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a company Business support systems
The newest development in data acquisition radio frequency identification (RFID)
consists of a large database that allows users to find information by entering keywords or questions in normal English phrases knowledge base
include professional staff members such as systems analysts, programmers, accountants, researchers, trainers, and human resource specialists Knowledge workers
describes data structures and design data model
describes the design and protocols of telecommunications links network model
describes the logic that programmers use to write code modules process model
CASE tools, to help systems analysts develop and maintain information systems computer-aided software engineering
also called adaptive methods, which include the latest trends in software development. agile methods
result of each phase is called a deliverable, or end product, which flows into the next phase. waterfall model
reviews anticipated costs and benefits and recommends a course of action based on operational, technical, economic, and time factors. feasibility study
logical model of the new system. systems analysis phase
where you investigate business processes and document what the new system must do to satisfy users. first step is requirements modeling
is to create a physical model that will satisfy all documented requirements for the system systems design phase
which represents a series of iterations, or revisions, based on user feedback spiral model
which is a formal way of asking for IT support systems request
experts predict that bar code technology will be overshadowed in the future by electronic product code (EPC)
means that a proposed system will be used effectively after it has been developed. Operational feasibility
refers to the technical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system. Technical feasibility
means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs usually considered the total cost of ownership (TCO), which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs Economic feasibility
are benefits that can be measured in dollars. Tangible benefits result from a decrease in expenses, an increase in revenues, or both. Tangible benefits
advantages that are difficult to measure in dollars but are important to the company Intangible benefits
means that a project can be implemented in an acceptable time frame. When assessing schedule feasibility, a systems analyst must consider the interaction between time and costs. Schedule feasibility
Projects where no choice exists nondiscretionary projects
Projects where management has a choice in implementing them discretionary projects
a requirement or condition that the system must satisfy or an outcome that the system must achieve. constraint
means defining the specific boundaries, or extent, of the project. project scope
Projects with very general scope definitions are at risk of expanding gradually, without specific authorization project creep
a widely used tool for visualizing issues that need attention. Pareto chart
includes identifying all project tasks and estimating the completion time and cost of each. Project planning
involves the creation of a specific timetable, usually in the form of charts that show tasks, task dependencies, and critical tasks that might delay the project. Project scheduling
requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload. Project monitoring
includes regular progress reports to management, users, and the project team itself. Project reporting
involves breaking a project down into a series of smaller tasks. work breakdown structure (WBS)
is a horizontal bar chart that represents a set of tasks Gantt chart
bottom-up technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks. PERT/CPM.
You can identify task patterns by looking carefully at the wording of the task statement. then, when, or and are action words that signal a sequence of events
open-source software that is supported by a large group of users and developers Open Workbench
includes a review of the project’s scope, stakeholders, budget, schedule, and any other internal or external factors that might affect the project risk management plan
lists each risk and assesses the likelihood that it could affect the project. Risk identification
evaluates each risk by estimating the probability that it will occur and the degree of impact Qualitative risk analysis
is to understand the actual impact in terms of dollars, time, project scope, or quality. quantitative risk analysis
is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it. A risk response plan
adding more people to a project actually might increase the time necessary to complete the project because of a principle Brooks’ Law
When several tasks can start at the same time concurrent task
two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task predecessor task
each concurrent task successor task
involves fact-finding to describe the current system and identification of the requirements for the new system requirements modeling
refers to system characteristics such as speed, volume, capacity, availability, and reliability Performance
refers to hardware, software, and procedural controls that safeguard and protect the system and its data from internal or external threats. Security
The deliverable, or end product, of the systems analysis phase system requirements document
enable you to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution Analytical skills
are especially valuable to a systems analyst who must work with people at all organizational levels, balance conflicting needs of users, and communicate effectively. Interpersonal skills
which is a user-oriented technique for fact-finding and requirements modeling joint application development (JAD)
RAD provides a fast-track approach to a full spectrum of system development tasks, including planning, design, construction, and implementation rapid application development (RAD)
represent a recent trend that stresses intense interaction between system developers and users agile methods
combines elements of the systems planning and systems analysis phases of the SDLC requirements planning phase
users interact with systems analysts and develop models and prototypes that represent all system processes, outputs, and inputs user design phase
focuses on program and application development tasks similar to the SDLC construction phase
resembles the final tasks in the SDLC implementation phase, including data conversion, testing, changeover to the new system, and user training cutover phase
where team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives. Scrum
is a topdown representation of a function or process. functional decomposition diagram (FDD)
Working from a functional decomposition diagram, analysts can create____to show how the system stores, processes, and transforms data. data flow diagrams (DFDs
is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design Unified Modeling Language (UML)
shows the timing of interactions between objects as they occur sequence diagram
is a characteristic or feature that must be included in an information system to satisfy business requirements and be acceptable to users system requirement
refers to a system’s ability to handle increased business volume and transactions in the future Scalability
Microsoft has developed a method for measuring total costs and benefits Rapid Economic Justification (REJ),
is a model that asks the traditional fact-finding questions in a systems development context Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture
some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. informal structure
encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses Open-ended questions
limit or restrict the response Closed-ended questions
are closed-ended questions that ask the person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. Range-of-response questions
determine how various changes in the work environment would affect employee productivity. Hawthorne Effect
When studying an information system, you should collect examples of actual documents sampling
would select every tenth customer for review systematic sample
If you want to ensure that the sample is balanced geographically to select five customers from each of four zip codes stratified sample
selects any 20 customers random sample
includes word processing, spreadsheet, database management, presentation graphics, and collaboration software programs Productivity software
common tool for showing the distribution of questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart histogram
Created by: jameschrisz



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