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MLT Endocrinology

QuestionAnswer
What is a substance produced and secreted into the blood by an organ or tissue, and has a specific effect on target tissue? Hormone
Hormones work in conjunction with which body system, maintains a state in the body which functions optimally and is disease free? Nervous System
What are the three types of of hormornes? Steroid; Protein; Amine
Where are Steroid hormone produced? Adren glands, gonads, and placenta
Which hormones does the Adrenal glands produce? Cortisol, Aldosterone, and Sex Steroids (primarily Androgens)
Where are Testosterone, Estrogen, and Progesterone produced? Gonads and Placenta
Which type of hormones are hydrophobic and synthesized from cholesterol? Steroidal Hormones
What is the Plasma half life for Steroidal Hormones? 60 - 100 minutes
What are the two types of Protein Hormones? Peptide Hormones and Glycoprotein Hormones
What type of Protein hormone is synthesized as a prohormone? Peptide Hormones
Which hormones are classified as Peptide Hormones? Parathyroid Hormone, Prolactin, Insulin, Glucagon, and Growth Hormone
Which hormones are classified as Glycoprotein Hormones? FSH, LH, TSH ans HCG; All have immunologically identical alpha chains and different beta chains (provide for specificity)
What is the half life for Protein Hormones? 5 - 60 minutes
Which hormones are classified as Amines? Catecholamines ( epinephrine and Norepinephrine), Thyroxine (T4), and Triiodothyronine (T3)
What are naturally occuring compounds, in the body, that serves as the hormones or neurotransmitters in the Sympathetic Nervous System? Catecholamines
Which Amines behave like Protein Hormones? Catecholamines 9Epinephrine and Norepinephrine)
Which Amines behave like Steroid Hormones? Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
Which hormones are thought to produce effects via the interaction with the receptor on the outer surface of the cell membrane? Protein Hormones and Catecholamines (Epinephrine and Norepinephrine)
Which Hormone has Cyclic Adenosinemonophosphate (cAMP) as it's "second Messenger"? Protein Hormones; Cellular action ceases rapidly after loss of stimulus
Which hormone passes through the cell membrane and interact with an intracellular receptor? Steroidal Hormones
Which hormones has a hormone-receptor that binds with chromatin, inducing formation of mRNA? Steroidal Proteins; Cellular action takes a while to stop once stimulus has been removed
What is regulated primarly via the control of hormone synthesis vice rate of hormone degradation? the Endocrine System
How is the synthesis of hormones controlled? Controlled through the system of negative feedback
How is cessation of hormone synthesis triggered? by Tropic Hormones or effected substance, not hormone concentration
Where is the hypothalamus located? portion of brain located in the walls and floor of the third ventricle, directly above the pituitary gland; connected to the posterior pituitary via a nerve stalk
Which hormones does the Anterior Hypothalamus produce? Thyrotopin releasing hormone (TSH & Prolactin), Gonadotropin relaesing hormone (LH & FSH), Somatostatin (inhibits GH & TSH release), Corticotropin releasing hormone (ACTH), Prolactin inhibiting factor (Dopamine), Growth hormone releasing hormone
Which part of the Hypothalamus produces ADH and Oxytocin? Supraaptic and Paraventricular nuclei
What are the hypothalamus associated disorders? Tumors, Inflammatory/degenerative processes, congenital problems, and diseases which affect interrelationships of the hypothalamus & other portions of the brain (growth failure in emotionally deprived children and Anorexia Nervosa)
Where is the Anterior Pituitary located? In the Sellaturcica cavity in teh splenoid bone of the skull
What type of hormonal secretions come from the anterior pituitary? Protein hormones 9Peptide and Glycoprotein)
Which hormones are secreted from the anterior pituitary? ACTH, GH, Prolactin, TSH, LH, and FSH
Which peptide hormone secreted by the anterion pituitary stimulates the adrenal cortex? Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
What is Growth Hormone (GH)? A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates protein anabolism, lipolysis, and hyperglycemia.
Which peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary, that initiates and maintains lactation? Prolactin
What are the Glycoproteins secreted by the anterior pituitary? TSH (stimulates thyroid gland), LH (involved in ovulation), and FSH (stimulates growth of follicles within ovaries)
What is the term associated with an overall decrease in pituitary hormones due to ischemia? Panhypopituitarism
What causes severe malnutrition. chronic liver or kidney disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, growth failure or pituitary adenoma? Increase in Growth Hormone
When does an increase in GH cause giagantism, and when does it cause acromegaly? increased GH causes gigantism in childrenand also causes acromegaly in adults
What is the function of Prolactin? Initiation and maintenance of lactation; after delivery levels may reach 200-300 ng/ml
What are the components of the Posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis)? various parts of the hypothalamus, nerve fibers, and pituitary gland
Which hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary? Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH, Vasopressin), and Oxytocin
What is the function of ADH? Increases blood pressure and regulates water reabsorption in the kidneys; produced by neurons in teh hypothalamus
Which hormone stimulates contractions during delivery? Oxytocin
What are some associated disorders with the posterior pituitary? Decreased ADH secretion (causes polyuria), Oxytocin has no known disorders
Which gland is located in the middle of the lower neck, below the larynx (voice box) and just above your clavicle? Thyroid Gland
What are the 2 lobes of the Thyroid Gland joind by? an Isthmus
Which hormones are secreted by the Thyroid Gland? Thyroxine (T4)- stimulates O2 consumption and metabolic rate in tissues; Triiodothyronine (T3) - same function as T4; Calcitonin - inhibits Ca resorption, lowers Blood Ca and P,
What does hyperthyroidism result in? Disorders of the kidney and bone due to abnormal Ca levels
What does hypothyroidism result in? injury or trauma of glands thus inability to maintian serum Ca levels without use of Ca supplements
Where are the Parathyroid Glands located? Adjacent to the middle and lower portion of the Thyroid Gland
Which hormone causes the blood phosphate level to decrease and the Ca levels to rise? Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Which disorder of the parathyroid glands is usually due to a adenoma, if not, hyperplasia is the culprit? Hyperparathyroidism
Which parathyroid gland disorder usually occurs due to trauma, and without the use of supplements results in low Ca levels? Hypoparathyroidism
Which glands ae located atop the upper pole of each kidney? Adrenal Glands
What is the outer layer of the Adrenal Glands, and how many layers does it have? Adrenal cortex, and it has 3 layers
Which part of the Adrenal Gland is linked to the Sympathetic Nervous System? Adrenal Medulla
What types of hormones secreted by the Adrenal Medulla? Mineralcorticoids - Aldosterone, Glucocorticoids- Cortisol, Sex Steroids, and Catecholamine Group- Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Which hormone helps regulate electrolytes? Aldosterone
which hormone helps to keep blood glucose concentration within a normal range between meals? Cortisol
What is the function of Sex Steroids? Regulates sexual development (puberty)
Which hormone accelerates glucose breakdown for production of ATP? Epinephrine
Which hormones mobilize energy stores, increases heart rate, blood sugar, and blood pressure? Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Which disorders are associated with the Adrenal Cortex? mineral/vitamin metabolism or sexual develpoment
What are the disorders associated with the Adrenal Medulla, due to tumors? Pheochromocytomas- benign tumor, well encapsulated vascular tumor of the adrenal medulla; Neuroblastomas- Sarcoma of the nervous system affecting mostly infants and children up to 10 years old
Which Organ contains the Islet of Langerhans? Pancreas
What does each type of cell of the Islet of Langerhans secrete? Alpha- glucagon (stimulates glycogenolysis ); Beta- insulin (regulates carb metabolism); Gamma- Somatostatin
What does disorders of the Islet of langerhans result in? the inability to metabolize carbs that results in diabetes, hypo or hyperglycemia
Which hormones are secreted by the Ovaries? Estrogen, Progesterone, and small amounts of androgens (testosterone0
Which hormones are responsible for the development of female sex characteristics? Progesterone and Estrogen (Estradiol is most common)
Which hormones does the placenta secrete? Estrogen, Progesterone, and a wide variety of protein hormone
What is the major androgen secreted by the testes, and what is its function? Testosterone- responsible for male sexual development
Which disorders are associated with the reporductive system? varies by sex and gland involved, usually results in under or over development of sexual characteristics
Which methodology of hormone testing requires a host organism? Classical- Bioassay; cumbersome and expensive
What are the 3 methodologies for hormone testing? Classical- requires host organism; Competitive Protein Binding (CPB)- competition of protein binding sites between known added amount of "tagged" or "labeled" hormone; Immunological Assays- binding of antibodies against hormone tested
Which testing method utilizes a radio-labeled hormone as tagged hormone? Radioimmunoassay (RIA); uses anti-sera
Which test method uses a labeled antibody instead of a hormone? Immunoradiometric Assays (IRMA)
Which test method uses and enzyme tag vice radioactive label? Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); most commonly seen
Which test method thats similar to ELISA allows for measurement without separating bond from free components? Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT)
Which test method is a competitive protein binding assay employing fluorescent labels? Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA)
Which test method is based on a change in angle of polarized fluorescence is emitted by a fluorescent molecule? Fluorescent Polarization (FPIA)
Created by: Nsikanete