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Phys3 Adrenal Glands

What hormone is produced in the glomerulosa layer of the adrenal cortex? mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone)
What enzyme is specific ONLY to the golomerulosa layer of the adrenal cortex? CYP11B2
Why can't the glomerulosa layer of the adrenal cortex produce gluccocorticoids or catecholamines? there is NO CYP17
What hormone is produced in the fasiculata layer of the adrenal cortex? Gluccocorticoids (cortisol)
What hormone is produced in the reticularis layer of the adrenal cortex? Androgens (testosterone, estradiol)
Feedback regulation of ACTH Glucocorticoids feedback inhibit the hypothalamus release of CRH & the pituitary's release of ACTH from corticotrophs as well as their receptors for CRH
What is the major Protein allowing ACTH to activate steroidogenesis in the fasciculata & reticularis layer? STAR, it allows cholesterol to enter into the mitochondria.
Why is streoid hormone release slower than aa or peptide hormone release? aa or peptide hormones are stored in granuales and released from the cell when the membrane bound receptor is activated. Steroid hormones must be synthesized via DNA transcription which takes more time.
Main target receptor of ACTH GPCR
What key volume regulating enzyme inhibits ACTH to cease steroid production from the adrenal cortex? ANP
What Inhibitory effects does cortisol have on the hypthalamus? 1.Inh GnRH & LH/FSH release. 2.Inh TSH
Effects of glucocorticoids on the lungs? Very important for fetal developemnt and maturation of surfactant.
Effects of glucocorticoids on bone and [Ca]? 1.Dec osteoblast fnc. 2.Inc Ca uptake in kidneys. 3.Dec Ca uptake in intestines.
Effects of glucocorticoids on the skin/muscle 1.thinning. 2.muscular atrophy. **promoting muscle breakdown
What effects would hyposecretion of cortisol have on ACTH secretion? INCREASED secretion b/c there is no negative feedback inhibition of cortisol. ACTH can then build up in the cortex
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Defective STAR genes. Therefore no cholesterol can enter the mitochondria and no corisol will be produced. **Screened for at birth, #1 cause of ambiguous genitalia.
Primary Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids Adrenal disease: Adrenal hyerplasia. **Most often Addison's Disease, also can be caused by Tb
Secondary Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids Deficiency of ACTH caused by either hypopituitarism or cortisol therapy (causes inhibiton at HPA).
Key enzyme affected in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Can't produce Mineralcorticoids or Glucocorticoids CYP21A2. Progesterone & 17-a-hydroxyprogesterone will then be shunted to androgen pathway. **Will see high levels of Androgens, low levels of gluco & mineralcorticoids.
Key enzyme affected in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Can't produce glucocorticoids or Aldosterone, but DOC circulates as a weak mineralcorticoid CYP11B1. DOC cant be converted to Aldosterone, but it is a weak mineralcorticoid and can be sufficient. Again 17-a-Hydroxyprogesterone will be shunted to Androgen pathway.
Key enzyme affected in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Can't produce Androgens or glucocorticoids CYP17. Cant convert pregnenolone or progesterone to their respective 17-a-hydroxy forms. Everything is shunted down mineralcorticoid pathway. **Will see High Aldosterone, Low cortisol & testosterone.
Which hormone levels will be low with STAR protein abnormalities? ALL 3
Difference b/w Cushings DISEASE and Cushings SYNDROME? 1.Disease: specific to hypersecretion of ACTH. 2.Syndome: NON-specific, hypersecretion of glucocorticoids.
Symptoms of Cushing's Disease 1.Central obesity, atrophy of arms/legs. 2.Inc in cortisol & glucose in urine. 3.Hypertension & Hyperglycemia. 4.Infertility.
Primary, secondary, and tertiary stimulators of Mineralcorticoid secretion 1.AngII. 2.Inc EC [K+]. 3.ACTH
Effects of aldosterone on kidneys? 1.Na Reabsorption. 2.H2O reabsorption. 3.K excretion. **Regulates Na homeostasis and thus BP
2 Main symptoms of HYPERaldosterone 1.Hypertension. 2.Alkalosis
What stimulates Adrenal Androgen production? ACTH
Are Adrenal Androgens an important contributor of ciruclating androgen in men or women? WOMEN
What are Chromogranains? Stabalizing granular proteins that are bound to medullary tyrosine catecholamines when they are produced (4:1 EPI:NE). **They stabilize them b/c of their very short 1/2 life.
What type of SNS fibers do the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla recieve? PREganglionic
Stimulation of Catecholamine release? 1.SNS. 2.ACTH. 3.Cortisol.
How do Adrenal steroid hormones circulate? bound to: 1.CBG. 2.Albumin.
Created by: WeeG



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