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Phys3 thyr & Parathy

Phys3 Thyroid & Parathyroids

2 main cell types of thyroid? what do they produce? 1.Follicle cells: produce T3 & T4 which is stored in the colloid. 2.Parafollicular cells (C-cells) produce calcetonin.
What all is contained within the Colloid of the thyroid follicles? 1.Thyroid hormone (T3 & T4). 2.Thyroglobulin.
Synthesis of T3 1.Tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin are Ionated: once (MIT), twice (DIT). 2.Thyroperoxidase (TPO) adds MIT + DIT.
Synthesis of T4 1.Tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin are Ionatedonce (MIT), twice (DIT). 2.Thyroperoxidase (TPO) adds DIT + DIT.
Which is the more active Thyroid hormone? T3. **T4 must be converted to T3 to become active
Which is synthesized/secreted more T4
How does TSH affect synthesis of thyroid hormone? BINDS TO GPCR receptors 1.Inc production of Tg (thyroglobulin). 2.Inc production of TPO. 3.Activates Na/Iodine symporter via cAMP (brings Iodine into cell).
3 types of deiodinases involved in thyroid hormone metabolism? where are they found? 1.Type 1: catalyzes T4 to T3 (found in liver, kidney, thyroid). 2.Type 2: catalyzes T4 to T3 (found in brain, BAT, pituitary, cardiac & skeletal muscle, placenta, pineal). 3.Type 3: catalyzes T3 to T2 (found in brain, skin, placenta).
Receptor location for Thyroid hormones INTRAcellular Alpha & Beta nuclear receptors despite the fact that its a PEPTIDE hormone. **T4 must be converted to T3 before it can bind to receptor.
Effects of Thyroid hormones Normal Growth & metabolism: 1.Basal metabolic rate. 2.Carbohydrate metabolism. 3.Protein metabolism. 4.Lipid metabolism. 5.thermogenesis.
T3 stimulates gene expression of 1.FA synthase. 2.GH. 3.Malic enzyme. 4.Glucose-6-phosphatase. 5.UCP.
How does cold influence release of TRH & TSH? Increases their release from hypothalamus & pituitary.
Grave's Disease Hyperthyroidism caused by autoimmune TSH receptor antibodies that stimulate/activate TSH receptor & Thyroid.
Symptoms of HYPERthyroidism 1.Irritability & Anxiety. 2.Wgt loss & Inc appetite (Inc MET). 3.Inc B1 receptors & palpitations. 4.Diarrhea & Inc freq. 5.Heat intolerance. 6.Sweating & eye tearing
Hashimoto's Disease Hypothyroidism caused by autoimmune thyroid cell antibodies that destroy follicular thyroid cells.
Symptoms of HYPOthyroidism 1.Memory loss & depression. 2.Cold intolerance. 3.Dec appetite & Wgt gain. 4.Periorbital & peripheral edema. 5.Dry skin. 6.Constipation. 7.Chest pain & Dec CO.
Causes of Thyroiditis Lithium drugs
Calcitonin 1.Peptide hormone. 2.Produced by parafollicular (C-cells). 3.Affects tissues via GPCR.
PTH PolyPeptide synthesized as a preprohormone in cheif cells & then cleaved into PTH
Regulation of Calcitonin secretion 1.C cell [Ca]. 2.Ca receptors. 3.glucocorticoids. 4.glucagon. 5.GI hormones.
Regulation of PTH secretion 1.Absolute [Ca]. 2.Rate of fall of [Ca]: A)Ca binding to cheif cell receptors. B)binding of Ca to its receptor. C)dec in [Ca]
3 major effects of Decreased [Ca] on PTH? 1.Less binding to Ca receptor stops the inhibition on exocytosis of PTH. 2.Inc synthesis of PTH. 3.Proliferation of Parathyroid cells.
Primary targets of PTH 1.Bone. 2.Kidney. **Secondarily targets the GI via Vit D activation.
Effects of PTH on Kidney BINDS TO GPCR receptor: 1.Stimulates Ca+ reabsorption. 2.Inhibits Phosphate reabsorption. 3.Stimulates 1-hydroxylase (activates Vit D). 4.Inhibits HCO3- reabsorption.
Effects of activated Vit D (due to PTH) on GI enterocytes 1.Inc Ca+ absorption. 2.Inc Phosphate absorption.
4 Major roles of activated Vit D 1.Inc Ca+ absorption in small Intestine. 2.Inc Phosphate absorption in small intestine. 3.Inc Ca+ reabsorption in kidney. 4.Inhibits synthesis of PTH
Effects of PTH on Bone Primary Effect: OSTEOLYSIS. this is accomplished by activating GPCR receptors on osteoblasts which then Increase OSTEOCLAST maturation & thus activity.
3 ways PTH activated Osteoblasts Increase osteoclast maturation & activity 1.Secrete M-CSF to activate osteoclast precursor maturation. 2.Juctacrine singaling via RANK ligand binding to receptors on osteoclast precursors leading to maturation. 3.Inhibits OPG which normally inhibits osteoclasts maturation.
Created by: WeeG



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