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Phys3 Repro Phys

Phys3 Reproductive Physiology

QuestionAnswer
Primary regulator of GnRH sectretion in males? Testosterone (long feebback loop)
Primary regulator of GnRH secretion in females? Estrogen/progesterone (long feedback loop)
Primary role of the male gonads (testes) Produce: 1.Gametes (temperature dependent). 2.Testosterone (NOT temperature dependent).
Male Accessory sex glands 1.Seminal vesicles. 2.Ejaculatory duct. 3.Prostate. 4.Bulbourethral gland. 5.Ductus Deferens. 6.Epididymis
How do the testes maintain a temperature a few degrees lower than body temp for gamete formation? 1.Dartos M in scrotum (contracted in cold:limits sweat glands, relaxed in heat:maximizes sweat glands in scrotal tissue). 2.Cremaster M (raised testes:cold, lowers testes:hot). 3.Pampiniform plexus (cools arterial BL as it enters testes).
A problem with dartos muscle, cremaster muscle, or pampiniform plexus can lead to what? Infertility
How are seminiferous tubules advantageous for gamete production? They maximize the space within the testes for sperm development.
Where are the Leydig cells? what do they produce? 1.Located in the interstitial space outside the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules. 2.Produce testosterone in response to LH.
How does LH cause production of testosterone in the Leydig cells? activates cAMP which Increases the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone. **Pregnenolone is then converted into Testosterone.
What stimulates the Sertoli cells? What do they produce? FSH. It activates cAMP which increases the conversion of testosterone (from leydig cell) into Estrodiol.
How is spermiogenesis advantageous to fertility? It adjusts the sperm to be structured for their function: 1.Elongation of flagella tail. 2.Inc Mitochondria for movement. 3.small nucleus with DNA.
What is Primary role of the female gonad? (Ovaries containing the follicles) Produce: 1.gametes (oocytes). 2.Estrogen & Progesterone.
Primary hormone secreted in the follicular phase? Estradiol.
What causes the Gonadotrophin surge? At a high threshold, Estradiol switches from being feedback inhibitory to feedback stimulatory on hypothalamus. **Leads to Large spike in LH & FSH (ovulation).
Primary hormone produced in the Luteal phase? Progesterone. **Prepares the endometrium for egg/zygote implantation.
Follicular development: Thecal cells Contain vasculature and develop outside the basement membrane
Follicular development: Granulosa cells Develop inside the BM and produce the antrum to allow diffusion of nutrients and waste to&from the oocyte & thecal vasculature.
Follicular development: Cumulous cells Granulosa cells that are closely related to oocyte.
What are the steroid producing cells in the female? 1.Thecal cells (LH causes production of Androgens/testosterone). 2.Granulosa cells (LH & FSH produce progesterone & Estradiol).
How is the corpus luteum formed? By the follicular fluid evacuating the follicle after the ovulation has occured. **Secretes progesterone
LH's affect on Granulosa cells? FSH's affect? 1.LH: converts cholesterol into Progesterone (via cAMP). 2.FSH: converts testosterone (from thecal cell) into Estradoil. **Granulosa cell can only produce Progestins by itself. Thecal only produce androgens
When is female body temperature highest? During Progesterone peak (luteal phase post ovulation).
How does Estradiol secretion impact the ampulla of the oviduct? Ciliogenesis in order to aid in the movement of the egg down the oviduct. **(during follicular phase PRE-ovulation).
How does Progesterone secretion impact the ampulla of the oviduct? Causes nutritional secretion from the peg cells in order to provide nutrients from the egg incase it is fertilized in the oviduct. **(during luteal phase POST-ovulation).
How does Estradiol secretion affect the endometrial lining? It causes the early proliferative phase. **Follicular phase, Pre-ovulation.
How does Progesterone secretion affect the endometrial lining? It causes the secretory phase in order to support embryo development. **Luteal phase, Post-ovulation.
Estradiol's affect on cervix Inc watery mucous production to aid in the sperm's movement up the cervical canal. "FERNING" **Follicular phase, Pre-ovulation.
Progesterone's affect on cervix Decreases watery mucous production and causes secretion of a viscous mucous creating a preventative plug in the cervical canal. **Luteal phase, Post-ovulation.
Estradiol's affect on vagina Inc glycogen deposits in epithelial cells. **Follicular phase, Pre-ovulation.
Progesterone's affect on vagina Inc "desquamation" or slaughing of squamous cells. Leads to metabolization of glycogen by bacterial cells creating an acidic environment. **Luteal phase, Post-ovulation.
Estradiol's affect on breast Fat deposition & duct development. **Follicular phase, Pre-ovulation
Progesterone's affect on breast Alveolar development (hypertrophy of secretory cells), duct branching. **Luteal phase, Post-ovulation.
Created by: WeeG