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MLT Proteins

What is a Polypeptide Chain that contains at least 59 Amino Acid Units? Protein
What is the mass of a protien? > 10,000 Daltons
Where are Proteins found? In all cells of the body, fluids, secretions, and excretions
What are the 4 protein structures? Primary; Secondary; Tertiary; Quaternary
What is the specific amino acid sequence? Primary Structure
What does the winding of the polypeptide chain result in? a Helix or Beta Pleated-Sheets
What is the Tertiary Structure? The overall 3-D shape of the molecule
What is the Quaternary Structure? The arrangement formed when 2 or more polypeptides join together to form a protein
What are the components of an amino Acid? Amino Group; Carboxyl Group; Side Chain
What type of bond is formed when amino groups bind together? Peptide Bond
What are the different classes of Amino acids? Simple; Hydorxy; Sulfide; Basic; Acid; Heterocyclic; Aromatic
Which class of amino acids has no functional group on the side chain? Simple amino acids
What are some examples of Simple Amino Acids? Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine
Which class of amino acids has ALCOHOL as a side chain? Hydroxy Amino Acids
What are som examples of Hydroxy Amino Acids? Serine; Threonine
Which class of amino acids contain SULFUR as a side chain? Sulfide Amino Acids
What are some examples of Sulfide Amino Acids? Cysteine; Methionine
Which class of Amino Acids contains a BASIC GROUP as a side chain? Basic Amino Acids
What are some examples of Basic Amino Acids? Lysine; Arginine
Which class of Amino Acids contains a CARBOXYL GROUP on the side chain? Acid Amino Acids
What ae some examples of Acid Amino Acids? Aspartic Acid; Glutamic Acid
Which class of amino acids contains a RING GROUP (5-sided) on the side chain? Heterocyclic Amino Acids
What are some examples of Heterocyclic Amino Acids? Tryptophan; Histidine; Proline; Hydroxy Proline
Which class of amino acids contains an AROMATIC GROUP (6-sided) on the side chain? Aromatic Amino Acids
What are the functions of protiens? Tissue nutrition; pH buffering; Hemostasis; Transport; Biocatalyst; Immunity; Hormones
What is the Nitrogen content in protein? 16%; Nitrogen is not found in Carbs or Lipids
What is the characteristic of protein that demonstrates an absorbance in the far UV spectrum? Absorbance Spectra
What is the point at which the number of (+) charged group equals the number of (-) charged group? Isoelectric Point
What is the process by which a protein loses its native or original character? Protein Denaturation
What are the causes of protein denaturation? Heat; Hydrolysis via strong alkali/base; Enzymatic reaction; Precipitation by alcohol or salt; Exposure to UV; Exposure to urea or other substances
What is the characteristic of protein that makes it an effective antigen? Immunogenicity
What two major groups are proteins classified into, based on composition? Simple Proteins; Conjugated Proteins
What type of protein contains peptide chains yielding only amino acid upon hydrolysis? Simple Protein
What are Conjugated Proteins composed of? A protein (apoprotein) and a nonprotien (prosthetic group)
What type of protein has a metal ion attached to it? Metalloprotein
What are some examples of Metalloproteins? Ferritin (contains iron); Ceruloplasmin (contains copper); Hgb (contains iron)
What are Chromoproteins? Proteins that contains an organic group for color; ex. Hgb (gives RBC color)
What are Lipoproteins? When lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides are linked together
What are Glycoproteins? When carbs are joined to proteins; Molecules will be 10-40% carbs; ex. Haptoglobin
What are mucoproteins? When the percentage of carbs linked to proteins is greater than 40%; ex. Mucin
What are proteins combined with Nucleic Acids (DNA or RNA)? Nucleoproteins; ex. Chromatin
What are rare inherited disorders of amino acids metabolismdue to metabolic enzyme deficiency or Defect in amino acid transport? Aminoacidopathies
Which amono acid disorder that is caused by a deficieny of Phenylalanine hydroxylase and give urine a "musty" odor"? Phenylketonuria
Which amino acid disorder is caused by a decrease in Tyrosine aminotransferase? Tyrosinemia
What do high levels of tyrosine lead to? It leads to liver damage in infancy; Cirrhosis and liver cancer later in life
Which amino acid disorder is considered the original "inborn errors of matabolism", and also causes urine to darken upon standing due to the accumulation of homogentisic acid? Alkaptonuria
Which amino acid disorder has urine, breath and skin that smells like maple syrup or burnt sugar? Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)
If left untreated, which amino acid disorder causes death within one year? Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)
Which amino acid disorder causes Thrombosis, Osteoporosis and dislocation of the lenses in the eye due to the lack of cystine? Homocystinuria
Which amino acid disorder is caused by a defect in amino acid transport rather an enzyme deficiency? Cystinuria
How much Cystein is excreted in the urine for a patient with cystinuria? 20-30 increase in urinary excretion of cystein; Its insoluble (cause urine crystals) and renal calculi
What is the methodology for testing Cystinuria? Test urine for cystein using Cyanide-Nitroprusside; produces a red-purple color
Which amino acid disorder causes urine to have a "sweaty feet" odor? Isovaleric Acidemia
Where are most proteins synthesized? Liver
What does Hepatocytes do? They secrete alpha, beta, and some gamma globulins into the circulation
Whaer are Immunoglobulins produced? Plasma Cells
Where does disintergration to proteins occur? Digestive tract, kidneys and the liver
How are amino acids excreted from the body? amino acids are deaminated producing ammonia, which is then converted to urea and excreted in the urine
What is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones for energy production, recycling or excretion? Catabolism
What is Anabolism (constructive metabolism)? building up of complex molecules
What is the balance between anabolism and catabolism? Nitrogen Balance
What is Positive Nitrogen Balance? When Anabolism > Catabolism
What is Negative Nitrogen Balance, and when does it occur? Catabolism > Anabolism; Occurs during Burns, starvation and wasting tissues
Which plasma protein migrates ahead of albumin during electrophoresis? Prealbumin
Whish plasma protein has the highest concentration in the serum? Albumin
Which plasma proteins maintains of osmotic pressure and binds various substances in the blood? Albumin
What is the absence of albumin? Analbuminemia
When would you see a decrease in serum albumin levels? Severe malnutrition; Inadequate source of amino acids; liver disease; GI loss; Loss in urine due to renal disease
If a patient is dehydrated would their albumin levels be Increased or decreased? Increased
Which plasma protein accounts for 90% of the fraction of serum proteins that migrates electrophoretically immediately following albumin? Alpha-1-antitrypsin
Where is Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) synthesized? Synthesized by the fetus (synthesized by teh fetal yolk sac, then by the parenchymal cells of the liver
When does AFP increase? during pregnany; Increases in the presence of twins; Spina Bifida; Neural tube defects
What would indicate an increased risk for Down's Syndrome? Decreased levels of AFP
Why does AFP increase during pregnancy? Due to the AFP crossing the palcenta
Which plasma protein is composed of 5 carb units attached to a polypeptide chain? Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein (Orosomucoid)
When would you see increased levels of Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein? Pregnancy, Cancer and diseases associated with cellular proliferation
What is a chemical complex of lipids and proteins synthesized in the liver, consisting of HDL? Alpha-1-Lipoproteins
What plasma protein is composed of 2 alpha and 1 beta chain polypeptides? Haptaglobin (aka alpha-2-glycoprotein)
When are increased levels of Haptaglobin seen? Increased levels are seen in inflammationburns, therefore suited for evaluation of rheumatic diseases
What is a copper containing metallo-protein that has enzyme activities? Ceruloplasmin (Ferroxidase)
Which plasma protein consist of LDL (contains cholesterol) and VLDL (contains triglycerides)? Beta-Lipoprotein
Which plasma protein has 2 transferrin ions bound to each molecule? Transferin
What are the major functions of Transferrin? Transport iron and prevent iron loss through the kidneys
In what conditions would you see an increase in transferrin levels? Hypochromic and Microcytic Anemia
What is one of the largest plasma proteins synthesized in the liver, that is considered a glycoprotein due to ist carb content? Fibrinogen
What plasma protein is stimulated by an immune response to foreign particles and microorganisms? Immunoglobulins
What is the purpose of Total Protein (TP) testing? To detect abnormalities in the total serum protein levels
Which protein testing methodology is based for nitrogen deamination ansd is very precise and accurate? Kjeldahl Method
Why is the Kjeldahl Method not used much? It is too time consuming
which protein testing method is used with spectrophotometry and is related to the UV absorbance of polypeptide bonds? BIURET Method
What are the specimen requirements for protein testing? Use serum, and sample must be clear and stable for 1 week at 25 degrees Celsius
What is the methodology for albumin testing and what is the dye of choice? Dye-binding method; Dye of choice is Bromcresol Green
When would a patien experience hyperalbuminemia? when dehydrated
Created by: Nsikanete