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chapter 4 tissue

Epithelial Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters. Skin surface (epidermis)
Connective Supports, protects, binds other tissues together
Muscle Contracts to cause movement
Nervous Internal communication
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue Cells have polarity—apical (upper, free), lateral, and basal (lower, attached) surfaces
Apical surface (epithelial) surfaces may bear microvilli.(brush border of intestinal lining) or cilia (lining of trachea)surface is toward a lumen (open space)
Lateral surface (epithelial) surface binds directly to other cells through desmosomes, tight junctions, or gap junctions
basal surface (epithelial) Noncellular basal lamina of glycoprotein and collagen lies adjacent to surface of the basement.
Structural Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue 1-3 1. Cells are tightly packed and attached by cell junctions (tight junctions and desmosomes) 2 Epithelial tissue is avascular (lacks circulatory system) 3 Is supported by connective tissue reticular lamina (under basal lamina)
Structural Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue 4-6 4 Nerves only send projections into tissue 5 Covers the surfaces of the body (internal and external) 6 Has a high rate of regeneration
Tight Junctions Keep substances from passing between cells Line Simple Epithelia Columnar Epithelia in the Intestine
Gap Junctions Allow small molecules and ions to pass through to adjacent cells.Found in most epithelial cells (Nerve and Cardiac cells).
Desmosomes Mechanical protein links which bind cells together in tissues subject to considerable stretching Found in skin, heart, muscle, and uterus
Hemidesmosomes Mechanical protein links which bind cells to the basement membrane in most tissue
Adherance Junctions Weak glycoprotein bonds which assist tight junctions in binding epithelial cells together
Squamous cell The cells are much wider than they are tall.
Columnar The cells are much taller than they are wide
Cuboidal The cells are about as wide as they are tall
Simple Squamous Epithelial Cells Location:-Lung Alveoli(endothelium)(gas exchange)-Blood/lymphatic (endothelium) vessels-Heart (endothelium)-Serous membranes in ventral body cavity (mesothelium) Function:Allows diffusion and filtration of material where protection is not important
Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Cells Location:Tubules of kidneys,Pancreas,Thyroid, Small glands,Ovary Function:Secretion,Absorption
Simple Columnar Epithelial Cells Location:Most of the digestive tract (Stomach to anal canal)-Gall bladder-Ducts of some glands Ciliated type-Small bronchi-Some parts of the uterus Function:-Absorption-Secretion (enzymes, mucus)-Propels mucus/reproductive cells
Stratified Squamous Epithelial Cells Location:Non-keratinized type-Skin-Mouth -Esophagus-Vagina Keratinized type:-Epidermis of the skin Function:-Protection against mechanical stress and abrasion
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelial Cells Location:Ciliated Type-Trachea/Most of the upper respiratory tract Non-ciliated Type-Sperm carrying ducts/some glands Function:-Secretion of mucus-Propulsion of mucus through cilia
Transitional Epithelial Cells Location:-Urinary bladder-Ureters-Urethra Function:-Stretches readily and permits distention(cells change shape)
Glandular Epithelia A gland is one or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid Classified by:Site of product release—endocrine or exocrine -Relative number of cells forming the gland; unicellular (goblet cells) or multicellular
Glandular Epithelia (types) Endocrine glands Exocrine glands Unicellular exocrine glands Multicellular exocrine glands
Endocrine glands Ductless glands Secrete hormones that travel through lymph or blood to target organs
Exocrine glands More numerous than endocrine glands Secrete products into ducts Secretions released onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities Examples include mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands
Types of Exocrine Glands Unicellular exocrine glands-Goblet cell (found in respiratory tract) Multicellular exocrine glands-Are composed of a duct and a secretory unit
Modes of Exocrine Secretions Merocrine-Products are secreted by exocytosis(pancreas,sweat and salivary glands) Holocrine-Products are secreted by rupture of gland cells(sebaceous glands)
Connective Tissue (Types of Tissue) Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue,Loose (Reticular) Connective Tissue,Adipose Tissue,Dense Connective Tissue(Regular Irregular),Cartilage,Bone,Blood
Connective Tissue Functions and Locations Tendons – Binds tissues together Dermis of Skin, Membranes -Supports and strengthens other tissues Skeleton - Protection of vital organs Blood - Transport Fat – Insulation and Energy Storage
Embryonic (connective tissue) Mesenchyme-Gives rise to all other connective tissues.Gel-like ground substance with fibers and star-shaped mesenchymal cells
Types of Cells Found in Connective Tissue -Fibroblasts in connective tissue proper -Chondroblasts and chondrocytes in cartilage -Osteoblasts and osteocytes in bone (blast-builds something) (cytes-maintain surrounding tissue)
Protein Fibers of the Matrix (Connective Tissue) Collagen Reticular Elastic Fibers
Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue Consists of Elastic Fibers and Collagen Fibers. Widely distributed, under skin, digestive tract, surround organs/capillaries. Fibroblasts, Macrophages, Mast cells
Loose (Reticular) Connective Tissue Found in lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow) Supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages. Fibers in a loose ground substance.
Dense Connective Tissue Dense Collagenous Tissue (regular/irregular) -Found in Tendons Dense Elastic Tissue (regular) -Found in Blood Vessel Walls
Adipose tissue Some reticular fibers, adipocytes store fat Widely distributed in the body
Dense irregular connective tissue Irregularly arranged collagen fibers. Function Can withstand tension in many different directions.Provides structural strength. Location:Dermis of the skin,Fibrous capsules of organs and joints,Submucosa of digestive tract.
Dense Collagenous Connective Tissue (regular) -Fibroblasts secrete collagen, all fibers parallel -Found in Tendons, Ligaments, Dermis of the Skin -High proportion of Collagen fibers -Withstands great stress in one direction
Dense Elastic Connective Tissue (regular) -Fibroblasts secrete collagen, all fibers parallel -Vocal cords, Blood Vessel Walls, Bronchial tubes -High proportion of Elastic fibers -Allows recoil of tissue following stretching
Characteristics of Cartilage -Composed of Cells Called Chondrocytes. -Chondrocytes secrete dense, evenly dispersed collagen fibers. -Chondrocytes sit in spaces called Lacunae -Provides Flexibility, Strength, and Support
Hyalin Cartilage (most abundant) -Thin, pale collagen fibers (not visible) -Ends of long bones (joints), trachea, larynx, growth of skeleton -Can withstand compression forces -Provides support and cushioning properties
Elastic Cartilage -More elastic fibers in the matrix -Ear, nose and epiglottis -Can recoil when bent -Maintains shape and flexibility
Fibrocartilage -Thick visible collagen fibers -Pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs, miniscus in knee -Can withstand tearing forces and absorb compressive shock
Bone (connective tissue) -Hard, calcified matrix, with a lot of collagen fibers -Osteocytes lie in lacunae Function:Support/protection -Stores calcium, minerals, and fat -Blood cell formation
Blood (connective tissue) -Composed of red and white cells in plasma (fluid matrix) -Function:Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes and other substances -Location:Contained within blood vessels
Nervous Tissue -Neurons are branching cells -Function:Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors -Transmit electrical signals to effectors (muscles and glands) -Location:Brain,Spinal cord,Nerves
Skeletal muscle (muscle tissue) -Striated, long cells, multinucleated -Muscles that voluntarily move the skeleton
Cardiac muscle (muscle tissue) Striated, intercalated disks, single nucleolus in each cell,involuntary
Smooth muscle (muscle tissue) No striations, involuntary
Created by: 606400502



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