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Phys3 Hypothalamus

Phys3 Hypothalamus & Pituitary I & II

Adenohypophisis Anterior Pituitary (Glandular cells): 1.Pars Distalis. 2.Pars intermedia (not very active in humans). 3.Pars tuberalis (surrounds infundibular stalk).
Neurohypophysis Postierior Pituitary (Down growth of 3rd ventricle, contains neuronal tissue): 1.Pars Nervosa. 2.Median Eminence. 3.Infundibular stalk.
What connects the Hypothalamus & the Anterior Pituitary? Long portal vessels: 1.Axons in hypothalamus synapse onto capillary bed feeding long portal vessels. 2.Vessel travels down onto neurosecretory cells. 3.Activates a hormone secreting cell to release hormones into venous drainage.
What connects the Hypothalamus & the Posterior Pituitary? Nerve terminals of Hypothalamic (magnocellular) neurons are found in the Posterior Pituitary (direct axonal connection). **Terminals release hormone directly into venous drainage for bodily distribution.
What 2 hormones do the magnocellular neurons release from their nerve terminals in the Posterior Pituitary? 1.Oxytocin. 2.AVP (ADH).
Main function of the Hypothalmic portal system Carries hormones from hypothalamus to Ant pituitary to regulate hormone secretion from andenohypophysis. **Very limited vascular connection b/w lobes of pituitary.
Difference b/w Magnicellular and Parvocellular Hypophyseotropic neurons? 1.Magni: (long axon) Synapse onto capillary bed within the Posterior Pituitary (release oxytocin/AVP). 2.Parvo: (short axon) synapse onto portal capillary bed which then travels down to Anterior Pituitary (release stim/inhibit).
Location of Magnicellular neuron nuclei 1.SON. 2.PVH.
Location of Pervocellular hypophyseotropic neuron nuclei 1.PeVH. 2.PVH. 3.Arc.
Which pituitary lobe is needed for propogation of species? ANTERIOR.
What Hormones does the Ant. Pituitary release? 1.TSH. 2.FSH. 3.LH. 4.Prolactin. 5.GH. 6.ACTH.
What Hormones does the Post. Pituitary release? 1.Oxytocin. 2.AVP (ADH)
In what form are Oxytocin & AVP synthesized? released? 1.Synthesized: Pro-homones. 2.Released: Neurophysin I (AVP), Neurophysin II (Oxytocin). **Pro-homone is cleaved in secretory granules in the axon terminal.
What Nuclei is AVP produced in Supraoptic
What Nuclei is Oxytocin produced in Paraventricular.
Primary Function of AVP/ADH? Mechanism of action? Inc water uptake in kidney's collecting duct. 1.Inc synthesis & insertion of Aquaporin-2 H2O channels. **V2 receptor mediated: Gs-cAMP.
Secondary actions of AVP/ADH? receptors? 1.Arterial & venous constriction (V1a). 2.Stimulate ACTH release (V1b). 3.Stimulate spermaticord contraction (V1). 4.Skeletal muscle regeneration (V1a).
What is the number 1 regulator of AVP/ADH? Plasma Osmolality, they are directly related. **there is no osmolality level where there wont be some ADH release.
4 things affecting the ADH/plasma osmolality relationship 1.Rapid changes in osmolality. 2.Drinking. 3.Pregnancy (Dec threshold for ADH release). 4.Aging (Inc ADH response to osmolality changes, Inc plasma [ADH]).
What [ADH] levels would you expect to see in a pregnant woman? INCREASED [ADH] for a given osmolality.
Stimulation of ADH is caused by 1.Inc ECF osmolality. 2.Dec pressure in baroreceptors. 3.Ang II. 4.Inc in Na+ in CSF. 5.Hypoglycemic
inhibition of ADH is caused by 1.Dec in ECF osmolality. 2.Inc vol & stretch in low pressure baroreceptors. 3.ANP. 4.Dec temp. 5.Alpha Agonists. 6.thyroid hormone. 7.Lithium.
3 types of Diabetes Insipidus (DI)? (DI is not enough ADH) 1.Hypothalamic DI: Deficiency in ADH (problem with magnicellular neurons). 2.Nephrogenic DI: Renal resistance to ADH (renal disease). 3.Dipsogenic DI: excessive water drinking.
What is the most common cause of Euvolemic hyposmolality? Syndrome of inappropriate anti-duresis (SIAD). **4 different types A-D.
Causes of SIAD 1.Neoplastic disease. 2.CNS disorders. 3.Pulmonary disease. 4.Drugs.
Two important steps before diagnosing SIAD? 1.Always compare plasma [ADH] levels to osmolality levles. 2.rule out all other causes of euvolemic hyposmolality (Hypothyroidism & Glucorticoid deficiency).
Primary functions of oxytocin SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTION 1.Milk ejection. 2.Uterine contraction. **also ovulation & ejaculation
What causes oxytocin stimulation? 1.Suckling. 2.Estradiol (Progesterone withdraw). 3.Fergusson reflex.
What inhibits oxytocin release? 1.Catecholamines. 2.Opiods.
What receptor does oxytocin use? Gq
Can the linkage precursors generate multiple types of offspring cells (ones that release different hormones)? YES. **some cells of the anterior pituitary gland share a common lineage, so error at a point during the developmental process may impact one or more cell types.
3 hypothalamus hormones influencing Prolactin release from Ant Pituitary? INHIBITORY: 1.Dopamine (Lactotrophs-Gi). 2.Somatostatin. STIMULATE: 1.Tyrotropin releasing h.
3 hypothalamus hormones influencing TSH release from Ant Pituitary? STIMULATORY: 1.Thyrotropin releasing h. (thyrotrophs-Gq). INHIBITORY: 1.Somatostatin. 2.Dopamine
3 hypothalamus hormones influencing GH release from the Ant pituitary. INHIBITORY: 1.Somatostatin (somatotrophs-Gi). STIMULATORY: 1.Growth hormone releasing h (somatotrophs-Gs). 2.Thyrotropin releasing h.
Hypothalamus hormone influencing LH and FSH release from the Ant pituitary Gonadotropin releasing H (Gonadotrophs-Gq/Gs)
Hypothalamus hormone infulencing ACTH release from the Ant Pituitary Corticotropin releasing h (Corticotrophs-Gs).
Prolactin 1.Protein hormone. 2.Lactotrophs. 3.Primarily circulates as MONOmer. 4.Receptors: breast & pituitary. 5.Activates JAK/STAT pathway. 6.Primary fnc: production of milk. **Inhibits reproduction via inhibiting GnRH secretion.
Galacteria HYPERsecretion of prolactin. milky discharge in men & women.
What stimulates release of prolactin 1.Estrogen. 2.Serotonin. 3.TRH. 4.breast manipulation. 5.Sleep.
What Inhibits release of prolactin 1.Dopamine. 2.PRL. 3.Somatostatin.
GH 1.Protein hormone. 2.Somatotrophs. 3.2 splice variants (growth promoting, diabetogenic effects). 4.receptors on liver, adipose, skeletal muscle. 5.Activates JAK/STAT.
HYPOsecretion of GH Dwarfism
HYPERsecretion of GH 1.Pre-occification of epiphyseal plates: Gigantism. 2.Post-occification of epiphyseal plates: Acromegaly.
IGF-I & IGF-II Somatomedians that are insulin-like growth factors. **IGF-I is released from liver when it is stimulated by GH targeting muscle and bone growth.
what stimulates release of GH 1.ACh. 2.fasting. 3.TRH. 4.stress. 5.Hypoglycemia. 6.GHRh. 7.Alpha-adrenergic
What suppresses release of GH 1.Somatostatin. 2.GH. 3.gluccocorticoids. 4.Hyperglycemia. 5.Hypothyroidism. 6.IGF-I (somatomediates)
What inhibits GH/IGF 1.undernutrition. 2.Acute/chronic illness. 3.GH/IGF-I receptor deficiency.
Negative feedback loops for GH 1.IGF-I inhibits both somatotroph formation & hypothalamus release of GHRh. 2.GH inhibits hypothalamus release of GHRh.
Positive feedback loops for GH Both GH & IGF-I stimulate hypothalamus release of SRIF(somatostatin) which inhibits somatotrophin formation.
Key functions of GH 1.Inc lipolysis. 2.Stimulation of protein synthesis. 3.Antagonism of insulin action. 4.Stimulates Linear growth.
Somatostatin Protein hormone released from hypothalamus, Inhibits release of: 1.Pituitary: GH, Prolactin, TSH, ACTH. 2.Pancreas: Insulin & Glucagon. 3.Enteroendocrine in GI system: secretions. **5 different receptors allow it to produce multiple effects.
ACTH 1.Protein hormone. 2.corticotrophs. 3.Maintains adrenal gland
Hypersecretion of ACTH Cushings disease.
Hyposecretion of ACTH 1.Metabolic disorders. 2.Reproduction problems.
Negative feedback loops for ACTH (Primary regulator) Glucocorticoids inhibits: 1.formation of corticotroph (which stimulates ACTH release from Ant pituitary). 2.Hypothalamus release of CRH (corticotroph releasing hormone) which stimulates corticotroph formation.
What stimulates release of ACTH 1.CRH. 2.Stress. 3.Sleep/wake transition.
What inhibits release of ACTH 1.Cortisol (glucocorticoids). 2.ACTH. 3.Somatostatin.
TSH 1.glycoprotein hormone (alpha & beta chain, Beta distinguishes TSH from LH & FSH). 2.Thyrotrophs. 3.TRH stimulates transcription of both alpha & beta chains. 4.Long half-life. **glycosalation problems will affect its fnc b/c its glycosalated.
TSH Feedback loops 1.Negative: Thyroid hormone inhibits the hypothalamus' release of TRH (forms thyrotroph) & formation of thyrotroph. 2.Positive: Stimulates hypothalamus' release of somatostatin which inhibits thyrotroph formation.
What stimulates release of TSH? 1.TRH. 2.cold weather. 3.Leptin.
What inhibits release of TSH? 1.Thyroid hormone (T3/T4). 2.fasting. 3.Somatostatin. 4.dopamine. 5.GH. 6.Cortisol. **Cross-talk
Gonadotrophins (FSH & LH) 1.Glycoprotein hormones (alpha & beta chain). 2.Gonadotrophs. 3.Stimulated by GnRh. 4.Receptors on gonads. 5.G-protein receptors (FSH:cAMP, LH:cAMP & PLC)
Is it easier to detect HYPOsecretion of gonadotrophins in males or females? FEMALES.
Negative gonadotroph feedback loops Both Testosterone (males) and Estrogen/progesterone (females) have an inhibitory effect on GnRh release from hypothalamus & LH/FSH release from pituitary.
Anterior Pituitary Target cell of Hypothalamic release of Dopamine? what do these cells release? Lactotrophs. They release (via Gi) Prolactin.
Anterior Pituitary Target cell of Hypothalamic release of TRH? what do these cells release? Thyrotrophs. they release (via Gq) TSH.
Anterior Pituitary Target cell of Hypothalamic release of Corticotropin releasing hormone? what do these cells release? Corticotrophs. They release (via Gs) ACTH.
Anterior Pituitary Target cell of Hypothalamic release of Gonadotopin releasing hormone? what do these cells release? Gonadotrophs. They release (via Gq/Gs) LH, FSH.
Anterior Pituitary Target cell of Hypothalamic release of Growth hormone releasing hormone? what do these cells release? Somatotrophs. They release (via Gs) GH.
Created by: WeeG



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