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Intro To Computer

Chapter 1-2

Computer Is a programmable electronic device that accepts data input, performs processing operations on that data, and outputs and stores the results.
Input The process of entering data into a computer; can also refer to the data itself.
Processing Performing operations on data that has been input into a computer to convert that input to output.
Output The process of presenting the results of processing; can also refer to the results themselves.
Storage Operations The operation of saving data, Programs, or output for future use.
The Primary four operations of a computer. Input; Processing; Output; Storage
Communications the transmission of data from one device to another.
Data Raw unorganized Facts
Process To modify Data
information Data that has been processed into meaningful form.
Hardware The physical parts of a computer
Software Programs or instructions used to tell the computer what to accomplish tasks.
End User A person who uses a computer to perform tasks or obtain information.
Cloud computing To use data, applications, and resources stored on computers accessed over the internet rather than on the user's computer.
Embedded computer Tiny computer embedded in a product and designed to perform specific tasks or functions for that product.
Mobile Device A very small communications Device with built in computing or internet capability.
Desktop computer A personal computer designed to fit on or next to a desk.
Personal Computer (PC) A type of computer based on a microprocessor and designed to be used by one person at a time.
Portable computer A small personal computer designed to be carried around easily.
Notebook Computer (laptop) A small personal computer designed to be carried around easily.
Tablet Computer A portable computer about the size of a notebook that is designed to be used with an electronic pen.
Net book A very small notebook computer. (No cd rom)
Ultra-Mobile PC UMPC A portable personal computer that is small enough to fit in one hand.
Dumb Terminal A computer that must be connected to a network to perform processing or storage tasks.
Thin Client A personal computer designed to access a network for processing and data storage instead of performing those tasks locally.
Internet Appliance A specialized network computer designed primarily for internet access and/or email exchange.
Midrange server A medium-sized computer used to host programs and data for a small network.
Virtualization The creation of virtual versions of a computer resource.
Main Frame Computer A computer used in large organizations that manage large amounts of centralized data and run multiple programs simultaneously.
Super Computer The fastest most expensive and most powerful type of computer.
Supercomputing cluster. A supercomputer composed of numerous smaller computers connected together to act as a single computer.
Network Comptuers and other devices that are connected to share hardware, software, and data.
Internet The largest and most well-known computer network, linking millions of computers over the world
Internet Service Provider ISP A business or other organization that provides internet access to others, typically for a fee.
World Wide Web WWW the collection of web pages available through the internet.
Web Page A document located on a webserver
Website A collection of related webpages
Web server A program used to view webpages
Internet Address An address that identifies a computer, person, or webpage on the internet, such as an IP address, domain name, or email address.
Ip Address A numeric internet address used to uniquely identify a computer on the internet
Domain name A text-based internet address used to uniquely identify a computer on the internet.
uniform Resource Locator URL An internet address that uniquely identifies the webpage.
Email address An internet address consisting of a username and computer domain name that uniquely identifies a person on the internet.
username A name that uniquely identifies a user on a specific computer network
Top level domains TLDS .com, .edu, .org
Intellectual property rights The legal rights to which creators of original creative works are entitled.
Copyright the legal right to sell, publish, or distribute an original artistic or literary work; it is held by the creator of a work as soon as it exists in physical form.
Fair use Permits limited duplication and use of a portion of copyrighted material for specific purposes, such as criticism, commentary, news reporting, teaching, and research.
Digital Watermark A subtle alteration of digital content that identifies the copyright holder.
Digital Rights Management DRM Software used to protect and manage the rights of creators of digital content.
Trademark A word, phrase, symbol, or design that identifies good or services.
Plagiarism Presenting someone elses work as yours.
Ethics Overall standards of moral conduct
Computer Ethics Standards of moral conduct as they relate to computer use.
Business ethics Standards of moral conduct that guide a business's policies, decisions, and actions.
Repetitive Stress Injury RSI A type of injury , such as carpal tunnel syndrome, that is caused by performing the same physical movements over and over again.
Carpal Tunnel syndrome CTS A painful and crippling condition affecting the hands and wrists that can be caused by computer use.
DeQuervain's tendonitis A condition in which the tendons on the thumb side of the wrists are swollen and irritated.
Green computing The use of computers in an environmentally friendly manner
Eco-Label A certification, usualy issued by a government agency, that identifies a device as meeting min environmental performance specifications.
ergonomics The science of fitting a work environment to the people who work there.
E-trash Electronic Trash or waste, such as discarded computer components.
Bit The smallest unit of data that a binary computer can recognize.
Byte Eight Bits grouped together
File A named collection of bytes that represent virtually any type of data.
1 KB Kilobyte 1,024 Bytes
1 MB Megabyte 1 million Bytes
1 GB Gigabyte 1 Billion Bytes
1 TB Terabyte 1 Trillion Bytes
1 PB Petabyte 1,000 TB
1 EB Exabyte 1,000 PB
1 ZB Zettabyte 1,000 Exabytes
1 YB Yottabyte 1,000 Zetabytes
System Unit The main case of a computer
Circuit board A thin board containing computer chips and other electronic components.
Computer Chip A very mall piece of silicon or other semiconducting material that contains integrated circuits (ICs) and transistors
Motherboard The main Circuit board in the system unit
Port A connector on the exterior of the system unit case that is used to connect to an external hardware device
Central Processing unit CPU or Processor The chip located on the motherboard of a computer that performs the processing for a computer.
Multi-core CPU a Cpu that contains the processing components or cores of multiple independent processor in a single CPU
Clock Speed A measurement of the nubmer of instructions that a CPU can process per second
Word The amount of data (measured in Bits or Bytes) that a CPU can manipulate at one time.
Cache Memory A group of very fast memory circuitry located on or close to the cpu to speed up processing.
Memory Chips located inside the system unit used to store data and instructions while its working on them.
RAM Random Access Memory Memory used to store data and instructions while processing them.
Register High Speed memory built into the cpu
ROM (read-only memory) Nonvolatile chips on the motherboard that permanently store data or programs.
Flash Memory Nonvolatile memory ships that can be used for storage by the computer or the user.
Bios basic input/output system The sequence of instructions the computer follows during boot process
Expansion slots A location on the motherboard into which an expansion card is inserted to connect it to the motherboard.
Expansion card (interface card) A circuit board used to give desktop computers additional capabilities
Bus An electronic Path over which data travels.
Throughput (bandwith) the amount of data that can be transferred via the bus in a given time period.
Expansion bus A bus on the motherboard used to connect a peripheral devices.
Universal Serial Bus USB A versatile bus architecture widely used for connecting peripherals.
Firewire (IEEE1394) A high speed bus standard used to connect devices particularly multimedia devices like dig cameras.
Transistors A device mad of semiconductor material that control the flow of electrons inside a chip
arithmetic/logic unit ALU the part of the cpu core that performs logical operations and integer arithmetic.
Floating Pint Unit FPU The part of the CPU core that performs decimal arithmetic.
Control unit The part of a cpu core that coordinates its operations.
Prefetch Unit The part of the CPU core that attempts to retrieve data and instructions before they are needed for processing in order to avoid delays.
Decode Unit The part of the CPU core that translates instructions into a form that can be processed by the ALU and FPU.
Bus Interface Unit The section of the CPU core that allows the core to communicate with other CPU components.
System Clock A small quartz crystal located on the motherboard that synchronizes the computers operations.
machine cycle the series of steps performed by the computer when the CPU processes a single piece of microcode.
Storage Medium The hardware where data is actually stored.
Storage Device the hardware where a storage medium is ready form or written to.
Harddrive Hardware used to store most programs and data on a computer.
Magnetic Hardrive a harddive consisting of one or more metal magnetic disks permanently sealed, with an access mechanism and read/write heads, inside its drive.
track A concentric ring on the surface of a hard drive where data is recorded
sector a pie shaped section on the service of a hardrive
cluster The smallest storage area on a hard disk formed by one or more sectors.
Cylinder The collection of tracks located in the same location on a set of hard disk surfaces.
Solid state drive HD that uses flash memory Media
Disk Access time the total time that it takes for a hardrive to read or write data.
Disk Cache Memory used in conjunction with a magnetic hardrive to improve system performance.
Hybrid harddrive A combo of flash memory and magnetic HD
Optical disc a storage medium in the shape of a think circular disc made out of poly carbonate substrate read from and written to using a laser beam.
Optical Drive A drive designed to read optical discs.
Flash Card A small rectangular flash memory medium
USB Flash drive Flash drive in a USB form
Remote Storage a storage device that is not connected directly to the user's computer.
Network attached storage High performance storage server connected individually to a network to provide storage for computers on that network
Storage area Network SAN A network of harddrives or other storage devices the provide storage for another network
Cloud / online storage Storage online/ via internet accessed
Smart Card A credit card sized piece of plastic that contains a chip and computer and circuitry that can store data.
Storage server A storage device containing multiple high-speed harddrives connected to the computer system or network.
RAID Redundant array of independent disks A method of storing data on two or more harddrives that work together.
Magnetic tape storage media consisting of plastic tape coated with magnetizable substance.
input device any piece of equipment that is used to enter data
Dots Per inch DPI a measurement of resolution that indicates the quality of an image or output.
RFID Radio Frequency identification a technology that can store, read and transmit data in RFID Tags
RFID Tag A tiny chip and radio antenna attached to an object so it can be identified using RFID Technology
CRT Monitor A display device that uses cathode-ray tube technology
Flat Plane slim display device that uses electronically charged chemicals or gases to display images.
LCD Liquid Crystal Display A type of flat panel display that uses charged liquid crystals.
LED Light Emitting Diode A common flat panel technology
Organic LED OLED Flat panel organic mat to display.
Interferometric Modulator Display A flat panel display tech that uses external light to display images.
Plasma layer of gas between two plates of glass instead of liquid crystals. (DISPLAY)
Pixel The smallest Colorable areas on a device.
Surface conduction electron Emitter Display SED HD Tech that is in development.
Created by: 100000561301200