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repro lab practical

repro lab practical 1

tissue a group of cells that is similar in structure and function.
histology the study of tissues
describe the simple cell it has a basement membrane. the lateral surface is the side. the nucleus and cytoplasm. and the apical surface is the top of the cell.
Functions of epithelial cells "P.S FACES" protection secretion filtration absorption covers surfaces (external body surfaces and cavity linings and tubules) excretion sensory perception
Ways of naming epithelium tissues you can name it by layer, shapes, and other factors layers- simple, stratified, pseudostratified shape- squamous, cuboidal, columnar other factors- cilia, stereocilia, flagella, keratinization
function of cilia they are long motile processes for movement of fluid
function of stereocilia "flame-like" non-motile processes. used to increase surface area for absorption. rigid, non movement
flagella cellular appendages for motion. extension of cytoplamic membrane with microtubules. found ONLY in the sperm cells.
keratinization the degeneration of the nucleus followed by the filling of keratin in the cell. for protection. keratinized= no nucleus non keratinized= nucleus
simple squamous epithelium located in the vascular endothelium of the rete testis and testis. it is or protection and transportation. also blood vessels and capillaries.
simple cuboidal epithelium found on the free surface of the ovary (superficial epithelium), found in ducts of glands/ secretory units of glands and the lining of the rete testis. for protection and secretion
simple columnar epithelium cilia or non cilia cilia- oviduct for movement of oocyte and fluids no cilia- seminal vesicles and bulbourethral gland for secretion
stratified squamous epithelium usually cuboidal near basement membrane then becomes more squamous near top keratinized or non keratinized. keratinized- scrotum and vulva for protection non keratinized- glans penis and posterior vagina for protection
stratified cuboidal epithelium rare not present in the reproductive tract found in larger ducts sweat glands, mammary glands and salivary glands for protection
stratified columnar epithelium very rare sometimes found in small amounts in the male urethra. protection and secretion
pseudostratified columnar epithelium can have cilia or stereocilia cilia- vas deferens for movement of fluid stereocilia- epididymis to increase surface area for storage of maturing sperm
transitional epithelium the shape is variable and contains CAP CELLS on the luminal surface. it is located in the bladder and in the penile urethra. expansion and contraction.
superficial epithelium found in the female ONLY simple cuboidal epithelium that lines the ovary for protection
germinal epithelium found in the male ONLY. variable shape in the lining of the seminiferous tubules for sperm production (spermatogenesis) in the testis
cap cells cap cells integrate into the bladder and cause it to expand (to hold more urine). found in transitional epithelium
endocrine glands secretion is conveyed to its site of action through the blood stream (hormones) or by diffusion through CT tissue. appears dense because it has no ducts and a bunch of CT tissue around
exocrine glands secretion is conveyed to its site of action by the use of ducts. it appears porous because of all the ducts
how does the endocrine gland form the epithelial membrane evaginates and grows into the CT in either the form of a tubule or a cord. the cells that invaded the CT grow and proliferate and differentiate into a gland. the cells connecting the gland to the surface disappear. leaves gland
how does the exocrine gland form epithelial membrane evaginates n2 the CT--> proliferates, cells differentiate forming a gland. cells that connect gland to free surface differentiate forming a duct. cells near terminal pt in CT differentiate, form the secretory cells-->secretory units.
unicellular exocrine glands goblet cells that secrete mucous. are located in the fornix vagina. protect the principle cell type. protection from forein substances in the vagina.
ways to classify exocrine glands classify it by shape, degree of branching, manner which secretory cells elaborate secretion and the character of secretion
the different shapes of secretory ducts tubular alveolar (grape shape or scinous) tubulo-alveolar
the degree of branching in secretory ducts simple gland- unbranched compound gland- branched and a secretory unit on each branch.
holocrine glands "whole" cells accumulate secretory products in the cytoplasm. the WHOLE cell will come off and release contents. then the whole cell dies.
apocrine glands "a part" only a small part of the cytoplasm of the cell comes off to release contents. small part pinches off.
merocrine gland "married" nothing comes off. products secreted with no portion of the cell lost.
serous gland produces serous fluid "wheylike", watery material
mucous gland produces mucous. the mucous contains glycoproteins.
mixed gland produces a mixture of serous and mucous fluids.
capsule CT that surrounds the entire gland.
septa CT that attaches to the capsule and penetrates the glands as sheets. it is used for internal support.
ways to support of large glands 1. capsule 2. septa
scrotum two loved sac seperated by the SCROTAL SEPTUM purpose is for protection/ support of testis thermoregulation of testis
4 layers of the scrotum epidermis tunica dartos scrotal fascia tunica vaginalis parietal
epidermis of scrotum for thermoregulation, has sweat glands. most outer later of scrotum
tunica dartos of scrotum for thermoregulation but is smooth muscles used for maintaining a contraction. also forms the scrotal septum it helps direct sperm by contracting the scrotum to pull up to body.
scrotal fascia of the scrotum it connects the tunica dartos with the tunica vaginalis parietal. loose CT layer
tunica vaginalis parietal of the scrotum inner lining of the scrotum. it is actually one complete layer of membrane that fold to resemble two.
4 layers of the testis tunica vaginalis visceral tunica albuginea parenchyma mediastinum
tunica vaginialis visceral of the testis outer later of the testis and covers everything, the whole testicle, epididymis, spermatic cord, etc.
parechyma of the testis darker looking outside part of testis. flandular, soft and tan. it is made of SI tubules, leydig cells, and germinal epithelium.
mediastinum of the testis the white inner part. "middle". contains the rete testis (which go to the efferent ducts)
tunica albuginea CT and smooth muscles that is the outer lining of the testis. it forms the septa lobules in the testis closest layer to the testis
seminiferous tubules lined with germinal epithelium and is the site of spermatogensis. it contains SERTOLI CELLS
interstitual cells of leydig found outside of the SI tubules. they produce testosterone.
describe the flow through the testis starts in the SI tubules (parenchyma) then goes to the rete testis (mediastiunum), then goes out the efferent ducts to the caput epididymis, corpora epididymis, then cauda epididymis to vas deferens/ speramtic cord, etc.
describe the thermoregulation of the scrotum thermosensitive nerves sweat glands allow for evaporative cooling respiratory rate changes tunica dartos maintains contraction.
epididymis single, coild, long tube. it surrounded by smooth muscles to propell sperm. where sperm is stored and matures. it has 3 sections: caput (head), corpora (body), and cauda (tail- sperm stored here until ejaculation) sperm always travels caput--> cauda
species difference in epididymis bull/ram- the caput (top), corpora, and cauda(bottom) are very close to the testis (top) stallion- the caput is close to testis and corpora and cauda is loosely attached to testis boar- its inverted. caput (bottom), cauda (top).
Vas deferens (ductus deferens) main genital duct. extends from cauda epididymis to pelvic urethra. wall is thick and heavily muscled. the thickened end is called the AMPULLA
Ampulla the enlarged end of the vas deferens. it adds seminal plasma to spermatozoa. empties near the pelvic urethra (starts to fuse into one). COLLICULUS SEMINALIS **not distinct in boars**
spermatic cord it suspends the testis in the scrotum 1. testicular artery 2. testicular vein 3. tunica vaginalis visceral 4. vas deferens 5. internal and external cremaster muscles 6. nerves and lymphatic
pampiniform plexus testicular veins wrapped around the testicular arteries. countercurrent exchange system. recycling T dampens pulse pressure
accessory sex glands seminal vesicles prostate bulbourethral glands
seminal vesicles secretes most of the seminal plasma. paired, located on the floor of the pelvis. fructose synthesis and secretion.(provide energy for the sperm)
prostate only found distinctly in the dog. not very distinct in livestock animals. can be lobular, disseminate, or both secretes the alkaline fluid and gives the characteristic order of the semen. boar/bull-partly disseminate stallion- two lobes ram- all dis
bulbourethral glands (Cowper's gland) paired, very large glands "hotdog" on either side of the pelvic urethra often covered by muscles, also secreted alkaline fluid. bull/ram/stallion- round, clear fluid boar- gel (used to plug cervix)
Muscles in the male tract 1. urethralis- covers the urethra, ejaculation 2. ischiocavernosus- "wings" near penis root on both sides for ejaculation. paired muscle 3. bulbospongiosus- near root of penis and overlabs, ejaculation.
types of penis 1. fribroelastic- bull/ram/boar limited erectile tissue. contains a sigmoid flexure. relies on CT and Rectractor muscle for erection 2. vascular-human/stallion/dog fills with blood following sexual stimulation, vascular tissue for erection
parts of the penis root- attached shaft- main portion glans penis- enlarged free end or head
species differences in the penis boar- "screw-like" penis stallion- vascular bull- fibroelastic ram- URETHRAL PROCESS (little thingy at the end of penis)
cross section of a penis anatomy both fibroelastic and vascular penis have a corpus cavernosum and a corpus spongiosum.
erection penis is more rigid. marked by increased arterial flow with decreased venous flow of blood that engorges the corpus caveronsum and corpus spongiosum. relaxation of the retractor penis muscle or it gets straight in fibroelastic penis- straight S. flexur
causes of erection erotogenic stimuli causes the hypothalmic sensory neurons to fire. NANC to neuron to fire. and release NO. NO causes guanylate cyclase to convert GTP to cGMP. rush of blood to penis and collapses veins. vascular tone decrease.
causes of no erection PDE5 converst the cGMP back to GMP. increase outflow of blood from penis.
ejaculation stimulation of the glans penis with muscular contractions.
pudic nerve responsible for ejaculation
colliculus seminalis a flap that blocks males from cumming and going at the same time.
cremaster muscles for fight or flight and lifts everything up (spermatic cord and testis) for thermoregulation as well.
retractor penis muscle it connects to the distal bend of the sigmoid flexure and hold it up. when contracted, it holds up the sigmoid flexure =non erection. when it relaxes, it extends the sigmoid flexure =erection.
sigmoid flexure "S" shape and only found in the fibroelastic penis.
Created by: msbribrks



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