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Lipids & Lipoprotein

MLT Lipids and Lipoprotein

What is Dyslipidemia? A disease associated with abnormal lipid concentrations
Lipids (Fats) are Hydrophobic, what does this mean they have little or ability to combine or dissolve in water
name the 5 classes of lipids Fatty acids, Triglycerides, Cholesterol, Phospholipids,and Sphingolipids
Name the properties of Saturated Fatty Acids 1. Single C-C bonds, 2.High melting point 3. Solid at room temperature
Name the properties of Unsaturated Fatty Acids 1. one or more double C=C bonds 2. Liquid at room temperature 3. Low melting points
What do Triglycerides do for the body Allow for compact energy storage, Provides insulation to vital organs in form of fat deposits in adipose tissue
How are Triglycerides transported by chylomicrons and VLDL
What is cholesterol? A soft, waxy substance found among the fats in the bloodstream and in the cells of the body
Cholesterol is the precursor to what synthesis of the steroid hormones and Vitamin D
What are Sphingolipids made of? Complex lipids containing ceramide in conjustion with sugars, phosphorous containing compounds.
What are Lipoproteins made of? Cluster of proteins and lipids all tangled up together
What carries lipids, including cholesterol, around in our blood Lipoproteins
when spaeking about Chylomicrons what does 6 hours represent time from the formation of chlomicrons after a meal to its removal by the liver
What is the major carrier of exogenous triglycerides Chylomicrons
Name the major carrier of Endogenous triglycerides VLDL
What does VLDL stand for Very Low Density Lipoproteins
What does LDL stand for Low Density Lipoprteins
When VLDL is deposited in perpheral tissue becomes what LDL
VLDL contains less triglycerdies but more what cholesterol
LDL contains what little triglycerides and a large amount of cholesterol
What lipoprotein is directly proportional to the risk of cardiovascualr disease LDL; "bad cholesterol"
Smallest lipoproteins are? High density lipoproteins (HDL)
Where does HDL (good cholesterol)transport excess cholesterol from the tissue and vessels walls to? It transports it to the liver to be remove from blood and discarded
what is inversely proportionate to the risk of cardiovasucalr disease Amount of cholesterol
name the 4 major pathways of Lipid metabolism 1. Absorption 2. Endogenous 3. Exogenous 4. Reverse Cholesterol transport
To simplify Triglycerides you need what Bile Salts & Lipase
Name the Lipid Disorders (Metabolic problems) 1. Arteries 2. Veins 3. Tissue 4. Vital Organs
Arteriosclesrosis is a generic term for what several disease in which the arterial wall becomes thick and loses elsticity
What class of Lipids are amphipathic? Phospholipids; they contain both polar hydrophilic group and hydrophobic fatty side chain
Which two class of lipids helps form the cell membrane? Cholesterol and Phospholipids
What is an emulsifying agent? Agent that is soluble in both water and oil
What is an example of an emulsifying agent? Lecithin- Used to emulsify the lipids and hold them in water as an emulsion
Where does LDL carry Cholesterol? It carries cholesterol in the blood and deposits it in body tissues and in the walls of blood vessels
In the Exogenous pathway, where are excess fatty acids deopsited? They are deposited in the adipose tissue for future use
What is the single leading cause of death and disability? Atherosclerosis
What is Atherosclerosis? Hardening of the arteries due to plaque build-up
What are Xanthomas? Nodules in the skin formed by lipid deposits; genetic in nature
What are Hormonal defect? Disorders or disease states that affect lipid metabolism (Diabetes- pancreatic hormones; Hypertension; Hypothyroidism- T3, T4; Obesity)
What is Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)? narrowing of the coronary arteries that feed the heart
What is the methodology for Triglyceride testing? Enzymatic / Kinetic
Wha tis the normal range for triglyceride testing? 10 - 190 mg/dl
What is the methodology for Cholesterol tesitng? Colorimetric
What are the reference ranges for Cholesterol tesitng? Desirable- 140-200 mg/dl; Moderate risk- 201-239 mg/dl; High risk >240 mg/dl
During Lipoprotein testing How far does the chylomicrons migrate? They do not migrate
How do you run a QC for Lipoprotein testing? run a control which contains a distinct alpha and beta bnads, with a faint pre-beta band
What is the reference ranges for HDL? Males 29-60 mg/dl; Females 38-75
What is the formula to determine VLDL? Trig / 5
What is the formula to determine LDL? total chol - ( HDL + VLDL)
When would you manually delete LDL results and add "invalid result due to interferring substance" When the Truglyceride levels is > 400
Created by: Nsikanete