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LCC1 study guide

study guide,authors,works,periods,literary terms

Dates of Classical period 400bce-500ad
Where did the Classical period take place? Greece and Rome
What are the main topics and themes in the Classical period? tragic love, accompl. of heroes, lives of gods and godesses, the afterlife
2 genres in classical period theatre and poetry
2 types of theatre in classical period tragedy and satyr
Tragedy theatre-main points unity of time and chorus
2 types of poetry in classical period epic poems, lyric poems
epic poems-main points uses system of metrical formulas, invocation of the muse
lyric poems-main points verse meant to be sung or recited, expresses emotion
satyr poems-main point comedic take on mythological subject matter
Aeschylus-works and period The Orestia--classical period
Euripides-works and period Medea/The Trojan Women--classical prd
Homer-works and period Odyssey/Illian--classical
Virgil-works and period The Aeneid-classical
Aristotle-works and epriod Poetics-classical
Orace-works and period The Odes-classical
Sappho-works and period Hymn to Aphrodite-classical
Sophocles-works and period Antigone/Oedipus Rex--classical
Juvenal-works and period Satires-classical
Ovid-works and period Metamorphoes-classical
Plato-works and period The republic-classical
2 dates of Medieval Period 500ad-1066ad 1067-1500ad
500AD-1066AD Early Medieval period Anglo Saxon/Old English Period
1067-1500AD Medieval Period
In the Anglo Saxon/Old English Period what are some topics and themes? originally spoken,loyalty b/w chief and warrior,warrior code,vengeance/courage in battle,good/evil,christian/pagan
In the Medieval period, what are some topics and themes? chivalry/bravery/adventure, courtesy,courtly love/romance
3 genres in the Medieval period Anglo-Saxon/Old English poetry, Mystery plays/morality plays religious prose
Main points in Mystery/Morality plays Divine judgement,perseverance and sacrificing leading to salvation, allegory/Saints' lives, following God
In religious prose who was it written for? It was written for women; Mary Magdalene, VIrgin martyrs
William Langland-works and period Piers Plowman-medieval
Geoffrey Chaucer-works and period The Canterbury Tales, Troilus and Criseyde, The Legend of Good Women, Parlement of Fowles --Medieval
Julian of Norwich-works and period Revelations of Divine Love--medieval
The Venerable Bebe-works and period Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum-medieval
Geoffrey of Monmouth-works and period Historia Regum Britanniae-medieval
Boethius-works and period The Consolation of Philosophy-medieval
Maria de France-works and period The Ysopet Fables, The LEgend of the Purgatory of St. Patrick-medieval
Sir Thomas Malory-works and period Le Morte D'Arthur-medieval
Chretien de Troyes-works and period Yvain, The Knight of the Lion/ Perceval, The Story of the Grail/ Lancelot, The Knight of the Cart
John Grower-works and period Confessio Amantis/ The Tale of Apollonius of Tyre/ Vox Clamantis
Caedmon-works and period Hymn
John Lydgate-works and period The Life of our Lady/The Fall of Princes/The Troy Book--Medieval
Date of Renaissance Period 1500-early 1600s also called the "Early Modern Period"
Topics and themes of the Renaissance period praise of Queen Elizabeth, Individualism and Personal Growth towards Ideal, revisiting themes from Classical, pastoral themes(shephards and country life), humanism and science
3 Genres in Renaissance Period Poetry, Drama, Travel Writing
2 types of Poetry in Renaissance Ballad and Sonnet
Ballad Poetry Often about the blissfulness of country life and featured shepherds and shepherdesses
Sonnet Poetry Most common topic was love, Individual and groups called 'sonnet cycles'
Drama main points often written in 'blank verse' (unrhymed iambic pentameter), a frequents subject was Englands mythological past
Romantic Comedy love, or the quest for love, as a main topic/ much of the dramatic action takes place outdoors, often in the forest
Revenge Tragedy Gruesome and violent/personal revenge vs. accepted forms of justice
Travel Writing main points writers emphasized supremacy of English language and religion, writers gave details on newly-discovered trade routes to show the prowess of english explorers.
Thomas Kyd-works and period The Spanish Tragedy-renaissance
Sir Phillip Sidney-works and period Arcadia, Astrophil and Stella/ The Defense of Poesy--renaissance
Sir Walter Ralegh-works and period The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd--renaissance
William Shakespeare-works and period The Merchant of Venice, Othello, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Let me not to the marriage of true minds---renaissance
Christoper Marlowe-works and period The Hew of Malta, Hero and Leander, The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, The Passionate Shepherd to his love--renaissance
Elizabeth I--works and period The Doubt of Fuure FOes, On Monsieur's Departure--renaissance
Edmund Spenser-works and period The Faerie Queene, Amoretti and Epithalamion, The Shepheardes Calendar--renaissance
Sir Thomas More-works and period Utopia, The History of King Richard the Third--renaissance
Mary Sidney Herbert The Tragedie of Antonie, A Dialogue between two shepherds, Thenot and Piers--renaissance
Lady Mary Wroth-works and period The Countess of Montgomery's Urania-renaissance
John Lyly Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit--renaissance
Thomas Nashe0works and period The Unfortunate Traveller, Summer's Last WIll and Testament-renaissance
Samuel Daniel-works and period Delia-renaissance
Michael Drayton-works and period Idea-renaissance
John Heywood-works and period Of Books and Cheese-renaissance
Ben Johnson-works and period To Celia-renaissance
Where does the Restoration period get its name from? From the restoration of Charles II as England's king in 1660
When does the Neoclassical period take place? spans the 18th century
The Restoration and Neoclassical period has these types of topics and themes: concept of 'wit', reaction against Puritanism, didactic message in many literary works, satirizing religion, manners, and the aristocracy, attention to the forms established by classical literature, advancements in science and in knowledge of the world
3 genres in the Restoration and Neoclassical periods Theatre, Periodicals, Mock Epic
What is the Comedy of Manners? Comedy about the upper echelons of society, taught its audience how people should and should not act
Where did many of the theatrical works take place? set in and around London
What are periodicals? weekly magazines and journals
What is a mock epic? taking the classical genre of the 'epic' and using it to present comedic tropes.
Aphra Behn-works and period Oroonoko--rest
Thomas gray-works and prd Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard-rest
Daniel Defoe--works and prd Robinson Crusoe-rest
Jonathan Switft-works and prd A Modest Proposal, Gulliver's Travels-rest
Alexander Pope-works and prd Rape of the Lock, An Essay on Man-rest
Samuel Johnson-works and prd The Rambler, The history of rasselas-Prince of Abissinia, Dictionary of the English Language-rest
William Congreve-works and prd The Way of the World-rest
Anne Finch-works an prd The Apology--rest
John Dryden-works and prd Absalom and Achitophel, Annus Mirabilis, All for Love-rest
Earl of Rochester-works and prd The Imperfect Enjoyment-rest
Christopher Smart-works and prd For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry--rest
Oliver Goldsmith-works and prd She Stoops to COnquer, The VIcar of Wakefield-rest
Samuel Pepys-works and prd The Diary-rest
Time period of the Colonial Period 1607-1765
Topics and themes of the Colonial Period Ideas and theories of the enlightment, freedom of religion, native american/colonial relations, african slave trade,english monarchy, puritan concept of 'innate depravity' and 'predestination'and destiny'
3 genres in colonial period Diaries, Sermons, Histories
What did the diaries contain in the colonial period? listed the daily struggles faced by the colonists and highlighted the wildness of America and their brushes with diseases and the wilderness
What were the sermons like in the colonial period? proclaimed the historical and moral importance of the colonies, colonies as a puritan religious example, attacks on witchcraft.
John Winthrop-work and period A Model of Christian Charity-colonial
John Smith-work and prd The General History of Virginia-colonial
Cotton Mather-work and prd Pillars of Salt, The wonders of the Invisible World-colonial
Thomas Harriot-work and prd Brief and True Report-colonial
William Bradford-work and prd Of Plymouth Plantation-colonial
Samson Occom A Short Narrative of my life-colonial
Olaudah Equiano-work and prd The Interesting Narrative-colonial
Anne Bradstreet-work and prd Upon the Burning of Our House, The Tenth Muse--colonial
Phillis Wheatley-work and prd On being brought from Africa to America, Poems on Various Subjects-colonial
Michael Wigglesworth-work and prd The Day of Doom-colonial
Thomas Paine-work and prd Common Sense-colonial
Thomas Jefferson-work and prd Notes on the State of Virginia, The Declaration of Independence-colonial
Benjamin Franklin-work and prd Poor Richard's Almanac-colonial
J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur-work and prd Letters from an American Farmer-colonial
Jonathan Edwards-work and prd Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God-colonial
Date of Revolutionary Period 1765-1830
Topics and themes of revolutionary period possibility of social mobility in a new nation, stories of ordinary people and their communities, enlightenment ideals of scientific inquiry, sentiment as a guiding principal, idealism and common sense, 'wit'
Genre of Revolutionary Period Non-Fiction
Types of non-fiction in revolutionary period articles that use satire to make judgements, editorials on political subjects, women writers emerge, polemic style
Royall Tyler-works and prd The Contrast-revol
Thomas Paine-works and prd Common Sense, The American Crisis-revol
Thomas Jefferson-works and prd Notes on the State of Virginia-revol
Phyllis Wheatley-works and prd To the University of Cambridge, in New England, Poems on Various Subjects, On Being Brought from Africa to America-revol
Benjamin Franklin-works and prd Poor Richard's Almanac, The Autobiography-revol
Washinton Irving-works and prd The Sketch Book-revol
Susannah Rowson-works and prd Charlotte Temple-revol
William Hill Brown-works and prd The Power of Sympathy-revol
James Fenimore Cooper-works and prd The Spy-revol
J. Hector St John de Crevecoeur-works and prd Letters from an American Farmer-revol
Charles Brockden Brown-works an prd Wieland-revol
Time period of romantic period late 18th to mid 19th century
Main topics and themes in the romantic period emphasis on the individual, emotions and the imagination,subjective and intuitive experience, mysteries of nature as a religious experience, interest in supernatural and mysterious
What are the key words to remember in romantic period works Gothic, Sublime,Sturm and Drang, Orientalism
2 genres in romantic prd poetry and gothic novel
Lord Byron-works and prd Lara, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage Don Juan The Giaour: A Fragment of a Turkish Tale romantic prd
Mary Shelley-works an prd Frankenstein-romantic
William Blake-works and prd The Marriage of Heaven and Hell,, The Tyger-romantic
William Wordsworth-works and prd Tintern Abbey The Prelude, GUide to the Lakes romantic
Samuel Taylor Coleridge-works and prd The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Fost at Midnight, Religious Musings-romantic
Ann Radcliffe-works and prd The Mysteries of Udolpho, The Romance of the Forest; The Italian: or the Confessional of the Black Penitents-romantic
William Gilpin-works and prd Observations on the River Wye-romantic
Matthey Gregory Lewis-works and prd The Monk-romantic
Percy Bysshe Shelley-works and prd Mont Blanc Alastor Prometheus Unbound Queen Mab-romantic
Jane Austen-works and prd Northanger Abbey-romantic
John Keats-works and prd To Autumn-romantic
Frances Sheridan-works and prd The History of Nourjahad-romantic
Lady Caroline Lamb-works and prd Glenarvon-romantic
William Beckford-works and prd Vathek-romantic
Thomas Gray-works and prd Journal in the Lakes
Horace Walpole-works and prd Castle of Otranto-romantic
Time period of Realist period 19th century
What is the Realist period also called? Victorian Period because it overlaps with Queen Victoria reign
Main topics and themes of realist period Industrial Revolution, portraying life as it really was, including writing about the poor and about domestic life, role of women, american realism
The topic in realist period that talked about role of women, what topics were discussed women's suffrage, right to own land and education
The topic in realist period that talked about american realism, what topics were discussed westward expansion, race relations, writers wrote in dialect-just like people talked
Key terms in realist period verisimilitude, local color, regionalism, concrete detail
3 genres in realist period poetry, novels, periodicals
John Ruskin-works and prd Of Queen's Gardens-realist
George Gissing-works and prd The Odd Women-realis
Charlotte Bronte-works and prd Jane Eyre-realist
Elizabeth Eastlake-works and prd Lady Travellers-realist
Rudyyard Kipling-works and prd The White Man's Burden-realist
Thomas Babington Macaulay-works and prd Minute on Indian Education-realist
Josephine Butler-works and prd Our Indian Fellow Subjects-realist
Henry Mayhew-works and prd London Labour and the London Poor-realist
Constance Fenimore Woolson-works and prd Miss Grief-realist
Kate Chopin-works and prd The Awakening-realist
Sarah Orne Jewett-works and prd A White Heron-realist
Mark Twain-works and prd Life on the Mississippi Huckleberry Finn-romantic
Ambrose Bierce-works and prd An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge-realist
Anna Leonowens-works and prd The English Governess at the Siamese court-realist
Elizabeth Gaskell-works and prd Mary Barton-realist
Elizebeth Barrett Browning-works and prd Cry of the Children-realist
Mary Austin-works and prd The Land of Little Rain-realist
Charlotte Perkins Gilman-works and prd The Yellow Wallpaper-realist
Maria Amparo Ruiz de Burton-works and prd Who Would have Thought It-realist
W.E.B. DuBois-works and prd Souls of Black Folk-realist
Charles Chesnutt-works and prd The Wife of His Youth-realist
Booker T. Washington-works and prd Up From Slavery-realist
Charles Dickens-works and prd David Copperfield, Great Expectations-realist
William Booth-works and prd In Darkest England and the Way Out-realist
Christina Rossetti-works and prd Goblin Market-realist
Time period of the Modernist period 1900-1930 influence of world war I
Main topics and themes of modernist period disconnected thoughts and images in a single work, stream of consciousness, wanted to make works hard toread,influenced by raising movement of psychoanalysis and Freud, felt alienated from the past and the future
What did the modernist think of other literature They thought older literature was fake and artificial
2 genres of modernist works poetry, and novels
T.S. Eliot-works and prd The Hollow Men The Waste Land The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock Modernist
James Joyce-works and prd Ulysses Araby-modernist
Susan Glaspell-works and prd Trifles-modernist
William Faulkner-works and prd The Sound and the Fury Barn Burning Modernist
Ernest Hemingway-works and prd A Farewell to Arms The Snows of Kilimanjaro-modernist
Nella Larsen-works and prd Quicksand-modernist
Willa Cather-works and prd My Antonia Paul's Case-modernist
F. Scott Fitzgerald-works and prd The Great Gatsby-modernist
Virginia Woolf-works and prd To the LIghthouse, Mrs Dalloway-modernist
John Steinbeck-works and prd The Grapes of Wrath The Chrysanthemums-modernist
Zora Neale Hurston-works and prd The Gilded Six-Bits Their Eyes were Watching God
Katherine Anne Porter-works and prd Flowering Judas-modernist
WEB DuBois-works and prd The Souls of Black Folk-modernist
Ezra Pound-works and prd In a Station of the MEtro-modernist
William Carlos Williams-works and prd The Red Wheelbarrow-modernist
Jean Toomer-works and prd Reapers-modernist
Hart Crane-works and prd The Bridge-modernist
Langston Hughes-works and prd The Weary Blues-modernist
H.D. (Hilda Doolittle)-works and prd The Walls Do Not Fall-modernist
Time period of the postmodern period 1945-present
Topics and themes of the postmodern period rejectiono of traditional literary forms and conventions, including the novel,,experimentation with literary forms,,fragmentary style and lack of historical congruity,,continue modernist themes of alienation and existential thought
2 genres of postmodern period beat poetry, anti-novel
Anne Sexton-work and prd The Death Notebooks-postmodern
Jack Kerouac-works and prd On the Road The Dharma Bums-postmodern
Ralph Ellison-works and prd Invisible Man-postmodern
Thomas Pynchon-works and prd Gravity's Rainbow-postmodern
James Baldwin-works and prd Going to Meet the Man Go Tell it on the Mountain-postmodern
Gloria Anzaldua-works and prd Borderlands La Frontera-postmodern
Donal Barthelme-works and prd The Dead Father-postmodern
Tennessee Williams-works and prd A Streetcar Named Desire-postmodern
John Updike-works and prd Rabbit, Run The Witches of Eastwick-postmodern
Allen Ginsberg-works and prd Reality Sandwiches Howl and Other Poems-postmodern
Gary Snyder-works and prd Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems-postmodern
Sylvia Plath-works and prd Ariel, The Bell Jar-postmodern
Alice Walker-works and prd The Color Purple-postmodern
Toni Morrison-works an prd Sula, The Bluest Eye-postmodern
Flannery O'Connor-works and prd A Good Man is Hard to Find, Wise Blood-postmodern
Leslie Marmon Silko-works and prd Ceremony-postmodern
Adrienne Rich-works and prd Diving into the Wreck-postmodern
John Ashberry-works and prd Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror-postmodern
Raymond Carver-works and prd Cathedral-postmodern
Maxine Hong Kingston-works and prd The Woman Warrior-postmodern
Joy Harjo-works and prd The Woman Who Fell from the Sky-postmodern
Donald Barthelme-works and prd Snow White The Dead Father-postmodern
A.R. Ammons-works and prd The Snow Poems-postmodern
Annie Dillard-works and prd Pilgrim at Tinker Creek
the repetition of initial identical consonant sounds or any vowel sounds in successive or closely related syllables, especially stressed syllables alliteration
patterning of vowel sounds without regard to consonants assonance
the emotional implication and associations that words may carry, as distinguished from their denotative meanings connotation
the basic meaning of a word, independent of its emotional coloration or associations denotation
a long narrative poem in elevated style presenting characters of high position in adventures forming an organic whole through their relation to a central heroic figure and through their development of episodes important to the history of a nation or race epic
an intuitive flash grasp of reality achieved in a quick flash of recognigion in which something, usually simple and commonplace, is seen in a new light epiphany
used to designate the types or categories into which literary works are grouped according to form, technique or sometimes, suject matter genre
implies that there are groups of formal or technical characteristics among works of the same generic kind regardless of time or place of composition, author, or subject matter genre classification
a brief subjective poem strongly marked by imagination, melody, and emotion and creating a single unified expression lyric
a composition giving the discourse of one speaker; represents what someone would speak aloud in a situation with listeners, although they do not speak monologue
the reasons, justification, and explanations for the action of a character; results from a compbination of characters moral nature with the circumstances in which the char. is placed motivation
a simple element that serves as a basis for expanded narrative; or less strictly a conventional situation device, interest or incident motif
a account of events; anything that is narrated narrative
words that by their sound suggest their meaning onomatopoeia
a mask, widely used to refer to a second self created by an author and through whom the narrative is told persona
the background against which action takes place setting
the geographical location, its topography, scenery and such physical arrangements as the location of the windows and doors in a room element of a setting
used to designate any extended fictional narrative almost always in prose novel
the occupations and daily manner of living of the character element of a setting
narrative writing drawn from the imagination rather that from history or fact fiction
a historical event is described in a way that exploits some of the devices of fiction, including nonlinear time sequence and access to inner states of mind and feeling not commonly present in historical writing nonfiction
a novel that recounts the yhouth and young adulthood of a sensitive protagonist who is attempting to learn the nature of the world, discover its meaning and pattern, and acquire a philosphy of life and the art of living apprenticeship novel
a novel in which the narrative is carried forward by letters written by one or more of the characters epistolary novel
a tale or short story novella
a subordinate or minor story in a piece of fiction; has a direct relation to the main plot, contributing to it interest and in complication subplot
one of the four chidf types of composition; its purpose is to explain something. In drama, it is the introductory material that creates the tone, gives the setting, introduces the characters and supplies other facts necessary to understanding exposition
the presentation of material in a work in such a way that later events are prepared for; can result from the establishment of a mood or atmosphere foreshadowing
the struggle that grows out of the interplay of two opposing forces; provides interest, suspense and tension conflice
a plot in which the principle reversal or peripety results from someones acquisition of knowledge previously withheld but which, now know works a decisive change recognition
may result in either tragedy or comedy recognition plot
the part of a dramatic plot that has to do with the complication of the action. It begins with the exiciting force, gains in interest and power as the opposing groups come into conflict and proceeds to climax rising action
the point at which the decisive action on which a plot will opposing forces that create the conflict interlock in the turn crisis
a rhetorical term for a rising order of importance in the ideas of expressed climax
the second half or resolution of a dramatic plot. It follow the climax, beginning often with a tragic force, exhibits the failing fortunes of the hero and the successful efforts of the counterplayers, and culminates in the catastrophe falling action
literally, "unknotting" The final unraveling of a plot; the solution of a mystery; an explanation or outcome denouement
the chief character in a work protagonist
What are the four types of conflict? man vs man; man vs nature; man vs. self; man vs. society
the character directly opposed to the protagonist. a rival, opponent, or enemy of the protagonist antogonist
the central character in a work; the character who is the focus of interest hero
a protagonist of a modern play or novel who has the converse of most of the traditional attributes of the hero. THis hero is graceless, sometimes stupid, sometimes dishonest antihero
literally, a "leaf" of bright metal placed under a jewel to increase its brilliance. In literature the term is applied to any person who through contrast underscores the distinctive characteristics of another foil
conventional character types stock character
a character constructed around a single idea or quality. This character is immediately recognizable and can usually be represented by a single sentence flat character
a term used by E.M. Forster for a character sufficiently complex to be able to surprise the reader without losing credibility round character
a figure of speech in which the actual intent is expressed in wods that have the opposite menaing verbal irony
intentional departure from the normal order, construction, or meaning of words; it embodies one or more figures of speech figuative language
a figure of speech in which someone, some abstract quality, or a nonexistant personage is directly addressed as though present apostrophe
implies something oconceived in the mind; ther term designates fanciful motion, usually expressed through an elaborate analogy and pointing to a striking parallel between ostensibly dissimilar things conceit
exaggeration. the fiure may be used to heighten effect, or it may be used for humor hyperbole
an anology identifying one object with another any ascribing to the first object one or more qualities of the second metaphor
the substitution of the name of an object closely associated with a word for the word itself. metonym
a statement that although seemingly contradictory or absurd may actually be well founded or true; it teases the mind and tests the limits of language paradox
a figure that endows animals, ideas, abstractions, and inanimate objects with human form; the representing of imaginary creatures or things as having human personalities, intelligence and emotions personification
comparing two things using the words "like" or "as" simile
a trope in which a part signifies the whole or the whole signifies the part ex. saying "threads" for clothes synechdoche
an adjective used to limit a noun that it really does not logically modify transferred epithet
a common figure of speech in which the literal sense of what is said falls detectably short of the magnitude of what is being talked about understatement
the use of words on oral or written discourse. Includes vocabulary which generally means words one at a time, and syntax, which generally means word order diction
the attitudes toward the subject and towardthe audience implied in a literary work. may be: formal, informal, intimate, solemn, somber, playful,serious, ironic, condescending, ormany other possible attitudes. attitude of the author toward the audience tone
in a literary work it is the emotional-intellectual attitude of the author toward the subject mood
the use of one object to represent or suggest another; or in literature, the serious and extensive use of symbols symbolism
a central idea theme
the collection of images in a literary work imagery
a form of extended metaphor in which objects, persons and actions in a narrative are equated with meanings that lie outside of the narrative itself; it represents one thing in the guide of another-an abstraction in that of a concrete image allegory
a figure of speech that makes brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event or object allusion
a dramatic convention by which an actor directly addresses the audience but is not supposed to be heard by the other actors on the stage aside
any device or style or subject matter which ahs become, in its time and by reason of its habitual usage, a recognized means of literary expression, an accepted element in technique convention
the employment of some unexpected and impropable incident to make things turn out right deus ex machina
a term from Horace, literally meaning "in the midst of things" It is appled to the literary technique of opening a story in the middle of the action and then supplying information about the beginning of the action through flashbacks and other devices in media res
a work or manner that blends censorious attitude with humor and wit for improving human institutions or humanity satire
a speech delivered while the speaker is alone (solus), calculated to inform the audience of what is passing through the characters mind soliloquy
a poem almost invariably of fourteen lines and following one of several set rhyme schemes sonnet
distinguished by its division into the octave and sestet; The octave rhyming "abbaabba". The octave presents a narrative, states a proposition, or raises a question; the sestet drives home the narrative by making an abstract comment italian sonnet
four divisions are used: three quatrains (each with a rhyme scheme of its own, usually rhyming alternate lines) and a rhymed concluding couplet. Links rhymes among the quatrains (abab cdcd efef gg) or (bcbc cdcd ee) English or Shakespearean Sonnet
Created by: nanny0918



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