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MLT Carbohydrates

What are Carbohydrates? Main energy source; Provides body with basic fuel
What is the universal energy source for biological reactions? ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
What two pathways is the primary energy source for the synthesis of ATP? By Glucose Oxidation by the Glycolytic and Tricarboxylic Acid Pathwaysa
What 3 Elements makes up a Carbohydrate molecule? Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
What groups does all Carbohydrates contain? Carbonyl (C=O), and Hydroxyl (-OH) groups
What are the classification of Carbohydrates based on? Size of base carbon chain; Location of C=O; Stereochemistry of hte compound; Number of sugar units
How many Carbons is in Hexose, and what are the most common examples? 6 carbons; Fructose, Galactose, and Glucose
What are two foers of Carbohydrates? Aldose- Aldehyde is its functional group; Ketose- ketone as its functional group
What is Stereochemistry? Study of the spatial arrangements of molecules
What are sterioisomers? Compoundsthat have the same order and types of bonds, but different spatial arrangements and different properties.
Can Stereoisomers be overlapped? No, they are mirror images but can't be overlapped.
What is Optical Activity? Ability to rotate plane polarized light (dextrorotatory- rotate to right; Levorotatory- rotate to left)
What are Monosaccharides "simple sugars"? contain 3-6 carbins; sweet in taste; most common (glucose, fructose, galactose)
What are the only carbs that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestines? Monosaccharides
Which sugar is known as the "blood" sugar? Glucose
What is the sugar in milk and yogurt? Galactose
What is the sugar found in honey? Fructose
What are Oligosaccharides? contain 2- 10 monosaccharides; Most are reducing sugars (not sucrose)
What type of Carbs are formed on the interaction of groups between 2 monosacccharides with the production of water? Disaccharides
What are the most common "double" sugars? Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose
What 2 monosaccharides make up Sucrose (common table sugar)? glucose and Fructose
What 2 monosaccharides make up Lactose (major sugar in milk)? Glucose and galactose
What 2 monosaccharides make up Maltose (product of starch digestion)? Glucose and glucose
What is the most common sugar in plants? Table sugar
What enzyme is required to hydrolyze lactose? Lactase
What is Lactose Intolerance? Lack or insufficient amount of the enzyme Lactase
What are some useses of Maltose? Ingredient in infant formula; Production of beer; Flavoring-fresh baked aroma
What are long chains of more than 10 monosaccharides (polymers of the simple sugars) Polysaccharides
Which type of cabohydrate digest at a much slower rate? polysaccharides
Name the most common examples of Poly saccharides Starch & Glycogen
What uses starch to store glucose Plants
What uses Glycogen to store glucose Animals
What is stored in the liver and muscles tissue as an "instant" source of energy? Glycogen
What is Oxidation? Loss of an electron (L E O)
What is Reduction? Gaining of an electron (G E R)
Reducing substances must contain what type of groups? Aldehyde of Ketone group
What is Metabolism? The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in the cell
What is Anabolism? Synthesis of all compounds needed by the cell
What i sthe breakdown of all molecules to obtain energy? Catabolism
What is an enzyme? a protein molecule that functions as an organic catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction, without itself being affected by the reaction
Which enzyme is responsible for the digetstion of non-absorbable polymers? Amylase
Which enzyme is responsible for the hydrolysis of food into smaller subunits? Amylase
Which enzyme Hydrolyzes Lactose? Lactase
What is the only carbohydrate to be directly used for energy or stored as glycogen? Glucose
Within the cell What is glucose rapidly converted to? Glucose-6-Phosphate, a major intermediate in glucoe metabolism
What does all basic cell functions and the whole body in general need? ATP ( Adenosine Triphosphate )
What is Hexokinase? A tissue-specific isoenzyme used to catalyze the conversion of Glucose to Glucose-6-Phosphate.
What is Glycolysis? Metabolism of Glucose to either pyruvate of lactate for the production of energy
In Aerobic Glycolysis, what is the dominant product? Pyruvate
In Anaerobic Glycolysis, oxygen is depleted. What is the dominant product? Lactate
How many ATP , and NADH molecules are created by the Glycolytic Pathway? 2 ATP, and 2 Pyruvate
What is the Prepatory Phase? The phase where O2 prepares pyruvate to go into the cell for the Kreb Cycle
How many ATP are created by the Tricarboxylic Acid (Kreb Cycle; Kreb Cycle)? 2 ATP molecules
How many ATP molecules are created by the Electron Transport Chain? 32 - 34
How many total ATP molecules are created by Aerobic Glycolysis ( Embden-Meyerhof pathway)? 36 - 38
In the absence of oxygen, what can pyruvic acid be converted to? Lactic Acid
What are the side effects of Lactic acid bulid up? Muscle fatigue, pain, cramps, and soreness
when is Lactic acid converted back to oxygen? Most arediffused into the bloodstream then to the liver where it is converted back to pyruvic acid when oxygen becomes available
What is a detour of Glucose-6-Phosphate from the glycolytic pathway to become 6-phosphogluconic acid? Hexose Monophosphate shunt 9HMP)
What is important to RBC's which lack mitochondria? NADPH
What is glycogenesis? Conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage
What is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose for use as energy? Glycogenolysis
Glycogenolysis is mediated by what wnzyme? glycogen phosphorylase
What are the major depots of glycogen? The liver and skeletal muscles
What is Gluconeogeogenesis? If neither glucose nor glycogen are available to meet the body's energy demands, the liver will synthesize glucose from proteins or lipids (non-carbohydrate sources)
What is the only hormone that decreases the blood glucose levels? Insulin
What is the primary hormone responsible for the entry of glucose into the cell? Insulin
Where is Insulin produced? By the Beta cels othe Islet of Langerhans in the pancreas
What is insulin referred to? "Hypoglycemic Agent"
What is Glucagon? The primary hormone responsible for increasing glucose levels ; secreted by alpha cellls of the Islet of Langerhans in the pancreas; "Hyperglycemic Agent"
Which hormone that increases glucose is produced by the adrenal medulla? Epinephrine
What is released from the adrenal cortex on stimulation by ACTH? Glucocorticoids; Primarily cortisol
What inhibits glucose uptake by the tissues and is secreted by the Anterior Pituitary? Somatotropin
What increases plasma glucose by converting liver glycogen to glucose? ACTH
What is secreted by teh thyroid gland on stimulation of the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)? Thyroxine (T4)
Where is somatostatin secreted from? A broad range of tissues including pancreas, intestinal tract, and regions of the CNS outside the hypothalamus.
What is Hyperglycemia? An increase in plasma glucose levels, caused by an imbalalance of hormones
What is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both? Diabetes Mellitus
What is Type I Diabetes? An absolute deficiency of insulin secretion due to beta cell destruction
What are some signs and symptoms of Type I Diabetes? Polydipsia ( excessive thirst), polyphagia ( increased food intake), polyuria (excessive urine production), rapid weight loss, hyperventilation, Mental confusion, Possible loss of consciousness
What is Kidney disease that leads to kidney failure? Nephropathy
What is neuropathy? Peripheral nerve disorder
What is Retinopathy? Occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina
What is Type 2 Diabetes? A result of individual's resistance to insulin, with an insulin secretory defect
What is the most common form of Diabetes? Type 2 Diabetes
What is Gestational Diabetes? Elevated blood sugar due to certain hormones that occur only during pregnancy.
Created by: Nsikanete